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What is Aluminium?

All Metals

Nihonium
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Moscovium
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Tennessine
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Aluminium In Periodic Table

Symbol
Al

Group Number
13
5
📊

Period Number
3
📊

Block
p block
📊

Element Family
Post-​Transition
📊

CAS Number
7429905
92

Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m

Space Group Number
225.00
2
📊

Facts about Aluminium

Interesting Facts
  • Aluminum’s abundance percentage is more as it is found in more than 260 minerals.
  • Pure Aluminum always reacts with oxygen rapidly.
  • It is a good conductor of heat and electricity and used in transmission lines.

Sources
By Electrolysis Process, Earth's crust, Mining

History of Aluminium

Who Discovered
Hans Christian Oersted

Discovery
In 1825

Abundance of Aluminium

Abundance In Universe
0.01 %
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.01 %
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.91 %
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
8.10 %
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.00 %
📊

Uses of Aluminium

Uses & Benefits
  • Aluminum is used in a various products; for example, cans, foils, kitchen utensils, window frames, beer kegs and aero plane parts, automobile parts, etc.

Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Ammunition Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Dentistry, Pharmaceutical Industry, Surgical Instruments Manufacturing

Other Uses
Alloys, Jewellery, Sculptures, Statues

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Non Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
0.39 Blood/mg dm-3

In Bone
27.00 p.p.m.

Physical Properties of Aluminium

Melting Point
660.37 °C
60
📊

Boiling Point
2,467.00 °C
46
📊

Appearance of Aluminium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silvery Gray

Luster
Metallic
📊

Hardness of Aluminium

Mohs Hardness
2.75
📊

Brinell Hardness
160.00 MPa
📊

Vickers Hardness
160.00 MPa
📊

Speed of Sound
5,000.00 m/s
10
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available
📊

Reflectivity
71.00 %
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Aluminium

Chemical Formula
Al

Isotopes of Aluminium

Known Isotopes
11
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
1.61
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
1.71
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.47
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
1.83
📊

Allen Electronegativity
1.61
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
2.39
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
577.50 kJ/mol
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,816.70 kJ/mol
📊

3rd Energy Level
2,744.80 kJ/mol
📊

4th Energy Level
11,577.00 kJ/mol
📊

5th Energy Level
14,842.00 kJ/mol
📊

6th Energy Level
18,379.00 kJ/mol
📊

7th Energy level
23,326.00 kJ/mol
📊

8th Energy Level
27,465.00 kJ/mol
📊

9th Energy Level
31,853.00 kJ/mol
📊

10th Energy Level
38,473.00 kJ/mol
📊

11th Energy Level
42,647.00 kJ/mol

12th Energy Level
201,266.00 kJ/mol

13th Energy Level
222,316.00 kJ/mol

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
0.34 g/amp-hr
72
📊

Electron Work Function
4.28 eV
19
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes

Atomic Properties of Aluminium

Atomic Number
13
88
📊

Electron Configuration
[Ne] 3s2 3p1

Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
FCC-Crystal-Structure-of-Aluminium.jpg#100

Atom of Aluminium

Number of Protons
13
📊

Number of Neutrons
14
📊

Number of Electrons
13
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
143.00 pm
📊

Covalent Radius
121.00 pm
📊

Van der Waals Radius
184.00 pm
📊

Atomic Weight
26.98 amu
82
📊

Atomic Volume
10.00 cm3/mol
49
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
80.70 (-eV)
17
📊

Lattice Constant
404.95 pm
22
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available
📊

Mechanical Properties of Aluminium

Density of Aluminium

Density At Room Temperature
2.70 g/cm3
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
2.38 g/cm3
📊

Tensile Strength
40.00 MPa
19
📊

Viscosity
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure of Aluminium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
0.00 (Pa)
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available
📊

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
26.00 GPa
📊

Bulk Modulus
76.00 GPa
📊

Young's Modulus
70.00 GPa
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.35
9
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable

Magnetic Properties of Aluminium

Magnetic Characteristics of Aluminium

Specific Gravity
2.72
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
0.00 H/m
📊

Susceptibility
0.00
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
28.20 nΩ·m
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.38 106/cm Ω
📊

Electron Affinity
42.50 kJ/mol
📊

Thermal Properties of Aluminium

Specific Heat
0.90 J/(kg K)
5
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
24.20 J/mol·K
53
📊

Thermal Conductivity
237.00 W/m·K
4
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
23.10 µm/(m·K)
17
📊

Enthalpy of Aluminium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
293.70 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
10.67 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
322.20 kJ/mol
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
28.30 J/mol.K
55
📊

Aluminium Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Aluminium metal is also represented by the symbol Al. This atomic symbol of Aluminium is useful in indicating the position of metal Al in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Aluminium? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Al metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Aluminium

Periodic table of Aluminium comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Aluminium metal belongs to Post Transition Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 13, whereas its period number is 3. It is placed under p block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent p block elements.

Aluminium Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Aluminium are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Aluminium is 13 and its atomic weight is 26.98 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Ne] 3s2 3p1. Nuclear particles in Aluminium atom are 14 neutrons, 13 protons and 13 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Aluminium

Physical and chemical characteristics of Aluminium are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Aluminium include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Silvery Gray Solid. It starts melting at 660.37 °C. All these Aluminium metal properties together define what is Aluminium?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og