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What is Aluminium?

Aluminium In Periodic Table

Aluminium Symbol
Al

Group Number
13
5
📊

Period Number
3
📊

Block
p block
📊

Element Family
Post-​Transition
📊

CAS Number of Aluminium
7429905
92

Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m

Space Group Number
225.00
2
📊

Facts about Aluminium

Interesting Facts
  • Aluminum’s abundance percentage is more as it is found in more than 260 minerals.
  • Pure Aluminum always reacts with oxygen rapidly.
  • It is a good conductor of heat and electricity and used in transmission lines.

Sources
By Electrolysis Process, Earth's crust, Mining

History of Aluminium

Who Discovered
Hans Christian Oersted

Discovery
In 1825

Abundance of Aluminium

Abundance In Universe
0.01 %
5
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.01 %
6
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.91 %
5
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
8.10 %
1
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
6
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.00 %
10
📊

Uses of Aluminium

Uses & Benefits
  • Aluminum is used in a various products; for example, cans, foils, kitchen utensils, window frames, beer kegs and aero plane parts, automobile parts, etc.

Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Ammunition Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Dentistry, Pharmaceutical Industry, Surgical Instruments Manufacturing

Other Uses
Alloys, Jewellery, Sculptures, Statues

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Non Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
0.39 Blood/mg dm-3
9

In Bone
27.00 p.p.m.
11

Physical Properties of Aluminium

Aluminium Melting Point
660.37 °C
60
📊

Aluminium Boiling Point
2,467.00 °C
46
📊

Appearance of Aluminium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silvery Gray

Luster
Metallic
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Hardness of Aluminium

Mohs Hardness
2.75
13
📊

Brinell Hardness
160.00 MPa
45
📊

Vickers Hardness
160.00 MPa
35
📊

Speed of Sound
5,000.00 m/s
10
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
71.00 %
10
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Aluminium

Chemical Formula
Al

Isotopes of Aluminium

Known Isotopes
11
27
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
1.61
22
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
1.71
13
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Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.47
14
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
1.83
8
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Allen Electronegativity
1.61
20
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Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
2.39
32
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
577.50 kJ/mol
66
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,816.70 kJ/mol
19
📊

3rd Energy Level
2,744.80 kJ/mol
38
📊

4th Energy Level
11,577.00 kJ/mol
3
📊

5th Energy Level
14,842.00 kJ/mol
2
📊

6th Energy Level
18,379.00 kJ/mol
2
📊

7th Energy level
23,326.00 kJ/mol
2
📊

8th Energy Level
27,465.00 kJ/mol
2
📊

9th Energy Level
31,853.00 kJ/mol
2
📊

10th Energy Level
38,473.00 kJ/mol
4
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11th Energy Level
42,647.00 kJ/mol
5

12th Energy Level
201,266.00 kJ/mol
1

13th Energy Level
222,316.00 kJ/mol
1

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
0.34 g/amp-hr
72
📊

Electron Work Function
4.28 eV
19
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes

Atomic Properties of Aluminium

Atomic Number of Aluminium
13
88
📊

Aluminium Electron Configuration
[Ne] 3s2 3p1

Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
FCC-Crystal-Structure-of-Aluminium.jpg#100

Atom of Aluminium

Number of Protons
13
87
📊

Number of Neutrons
14
66
📊

Number of Electrons
13
87
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
143.00 pm
37
📊

Covalent Radius
121.00 pm
53
📊

Van der Waals Radius
184.00 pm
34
📊

Atomic Weight
26.98 amu
82
📊

Atomic Volume
10.00 cm3/mol
49
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
80.70 (-eV)
17
📊

Lattice Constant
404.95 pm
22
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available

Mechanical Properties of Aluminium

Aluminium Density

Density At Room Temperature
2.70 g/cm3
74
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
2.38 g/cm3
52
📊

Tensile Strength
40.00 MPa
19
📊

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Aluminium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
0.00 (Pa)
18
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
26.00 GPa
29
📊

Bulk Modulus
76.00 GPa
18
📊

Young's Modulus
70.00 GPa
28
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.35
9
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable

Magnetic Properties of Aluminium

Magnetic Characteristics of Aluminium

Specific Gravity
2.72
62
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
0.00 H/m
4
📊

Susceptibility
0.00
3
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
28.20 nΩ·m
49
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.38 106/cm Ω
4
📊

Electron Affinity
42.50 kJ/mol
26
📊

Thermal Properties of Aluminium

Specific Heat
0.90 J/(kg K)
5
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
24.20 J/mol·K
53
📊

Thermal Conductivity
237.00 W/m·K
4
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
23.10 µm/(m·K)
17
📊

Enthalpy of Aluminium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
293.70 kJ/mol
31
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
10.67 kJ/mol
35
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
322.20 kJ/mol
31
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
28.30 J/mol.K
55
📊