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What is Bismuth?

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Bismuth In Periodic Table

Symbol
Bi

Group Number
15
3
📊

Period Number
6
📊

Block
p block
📊

Element Family
Post-​Transition
📊

CAS Number
7440699
22

Space Group Name
C12/m1

Space Group Number
12.00
12
📊

Facts about Bismuth

Interesting Facts
  • Bismuth metal is soluble and reacts with concentrated nitric acid.
  • It oxides are used as a yellow pigment in paint. Bismuth chloride oxide BiClO gives a pearly texture to cosmetics.

Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals

History of Bismuth

Who Discovered
Claude François Geoffroy

Discovery
In 1753

Abundance of Bismuth

Abundance In Universe
7 * 10-8 %
25
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
15
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.00 %
42
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.00 %
51
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
24
📊

Abundance In Humans
Not Available
📊

Uses of Bismuth

Uses & Benefits
  • Tin and bismuth alloys have a very low melting point and hence it is used in fire detector and the fire extinguishers. It also used in electric solders and fuses.

Industrial Uses
Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Pharmaceutical Industry

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Low Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
0.02 Blood/mg dm-3
20

In Bone
0.20 p.p.m.
22

Physical Properties of Bismuth

Melting Point
271.30 °C
70
📊

Boiling Point
1,560.00 °C
57
📊

Appearance of Bismuth

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silver

Luster
Metallic
📊

Hardness of Bismuth

Mohs Hardness
2.25
15
📊

Brinell Hardness
70.00 MPa
46
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available
📊

Speed of Sound
1,790.00 m/s
46
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available
📊

Reflectivity
Not Available
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Bismuth

Chemical Formula
Bi

Isotopes of Bismuth

Known Isotopes
33
6
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
2.02
6
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
2.34
3
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.67
6
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
2.15
4
📊

Allen Electronegativity
2.01
4
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
1.98
47
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
703.00 kJ/mol
35
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,610.00 kJ/mol
33
📊

3rd Energy Level
2,466.00 kJ/mol
48
📊

4th Energy Level
4,370.00 kJ/mol
28
📊

5th Energy Level
5,400.00 kJ/mol
30
📊

6th Energy Level
8,520.00 kJ/mol
19
📊

7th Energy level
Not Available
📊

8th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

9th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

10th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

11th Energy Level
Not Available

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
2.60 g/amp-hr
19
📊

Electron Work Function
4.22 eV
22
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Bismuth

Atomic Number
83
33
📊

Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3

Crystal Structure
Rhombohedral (RHO)
📊

Crystal Lattice
RHO-Crystal-Structure-of-Bismuth.jpg#100

Atom of Bismuth

Number of Protons
83
33
📊

Number of Neutrons
126
19
📊

Number of Electrons
83
33
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
156.00 pm
29
📊

Covalent Radius
148.00 pm
36
📊

Van der Waals Radius
207.00 pm
26
📊

Atomic Weight
208.98 amu
29
📊

Atomic Volume
21.30 cm3/mol
14
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
41.90 (-eV)
44
📊

Lattice Constant
667.40 pm
2
📊

Lattice Angles
NA

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available
📊

Mechanical Properties of Bismuth

Density of Bismuth

Density At Room Temperature
9.78 g/cm3
39
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
10.05 g/cm3
18
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available
📊

Viscosity
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure of Bismuth

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available
📊

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
12.00 GPa
42
📊

Bulk Modulus
31.00 GPa
38
📊

Young's Modulus
32.00 GPa
44
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.33
11
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
NA

Magnetic Properties of Bismuth

Magnetic Characteristics of Bismuth

Specific Gravity
9.79
30
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
📊

Permeability
0.00 H/m
6
📊

Susceptibility
0.00
6
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Semiconductor
📊

Resistivity
1.29 nΩ·m
57
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.01 106/cm Ω
60
📊

Electron Affinity
91.20 kJ/mol
11
📊

Thermal Properties of Bismuth

Specific Heat
0.12 J/(kg K)
40
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
25.52 J/mol·K
37
📊

Thermal Conductivity
7.97 W/m·K
67
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
13.40 µm/(m·K)
28
📊

Enthalpy of Bismuth

Enthalpy of Vaporization
151.00 kJ/mol
46
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
10.90 kJ/mol
33
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
207.10 kJ/mol
44
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
56.70 J/mol.K
24
📊

Bismuth Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Bismuth metal is also represented by the symbol Bi. This atomic symbol of Bismuth is useful in indicating the position of metal Bi in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Bismuth? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Bi metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Bismuth

Periodic table of Bismuth comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Bismuth metal belongs to Post Transition Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 15, whereas its period number is 6. It is placed under p block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent p block elements.

Bismuth Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Bismuth are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Bismuth is 83 and its atomic weight is 208.98 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3. Nuclear particles in Bismuth atom are 126 neutrons, 83 protons and 83 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Bismuth

Physical and chemical characteristics of Bismuth are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Bismuth include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Silver Solid. It starts melting at 271.30 °C. All these Bismuth metal properties together define what is Bismuth?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og