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What is Bismuth?

Bismuth In Periodic Table

Bismuth Symbol
Bi

Group Number
15
3
📊

Period Number
6
📊

Block
p block
📊

Element Family
Post-​Transition
📊

CAS Number of Bismuth
7440699
22

Space Group Name
C12/m1

Space Group Number
12.00
12
📊

Facts about Bismuth

Interesting Facts
  • Bismuth metal is soluble and reacts with concentrated nitric acid.
  • It oxides are used as a yellow pigment in paint. Bismuth chloride oxide BiClO gives a pearly texture to cosmetics.

Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals

History of Bismuth

Who Discovered
Claude François Geoffroy

Discovery
In 1753

Abundance of Bismuth

Abundance In Universe
7 * 10-8 %
25
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
15
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.00 %
42
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.00 %
51
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
24
📊

Abundance In Humans
Not Available

Uses of Bismuth

Uses & Benefits
  • Tin and bismuth alloys have a very low melting point and hence it is used in fire detector and the fire extinguishers. It also used in electric solders and fuses.

Industrial Uses
Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Pharmaceutical Industry

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Low Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
0.02 Blood/mg dm-3
20

In Bone
0.20 p.p.m.
22

Physical Properties of Bismuth

Bismuth Melting Point
271.30 °C
70
📊

Bismuth Boiling Point
1,560.00 °C
57
📊

Appearance of Bismuth

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silver

Luster
Metallic
📊

Hardness of Bismuth

Mohs Hardness
2.25
15
📊

Brinell Hardness
70.00 MPa
46
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available

Speed of Sound
1,790.00 m/s
46
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
Not Available

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Bismuth

Chemical Formula
Bi

Isotopes of Bismuth

Known Isotopes
33
6
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
2.02
6
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
2.34
3
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.67
6
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
2.15
4
📊

Allen Electronegativity
2.01
4
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
1.98
47
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
703.00 kJ/mol
35
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,610.00 kJ/mol
33
📊

3rd Energy Level
2,466.00 kJ/mol
48
📊

4th Energy Level
4,370.00 kJ/mol
28
📊

5th Energy Level
5,400.00 kJ/mol
30
📊

6th Energy Level
8,520.00 kJ/mol
19
📊

7th Energy level
Not Available

8th Energy Level
Not Available

9th Energy Level
Not Available

10th Energy Level
Not Available

11th Energy Level
Not Available

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
2.60 g/amp-hr
19
📊

Electron Work Function
4.22 eV
22
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Bismuth

Atomic Number of Bismuth
83
33
📊

Bismuth Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3

Crystal Structure
Rhombohedral (RHO)
📊

Crystal Lattice
RHO-Crystal-Structure-of-Bismuth.jpg#100

Atom of Bismuth

Number of Protons
83
33
📊

Number of Neutrons
126
19
📊

Number of Electrons
83
33
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
156.00 pm
29
📊

Covalent Radius
148.00 pm
36
📊

Van der Waals Radius
207.00 pm
26
📊

Atomic Weight
208.98 amu
29
📊

Atomic Volume
21.30 cm3/mol
14
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
41.90 (-eV)
44
📊

Lattice Constant
667.40 pm
2
📊

Lattice Angles
NA

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available

Mechanical Properties of Bismuth

Bismuth Density

Density At Room Temperature
9.78 g/cm3
39
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
10.05 g/cm3
18
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Bismuth

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Not Available

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
12.00 GPa
42
📊

Bulk Modulus
31.00 GPa
38
📊

Young's Modulus
32.00 GPa
44
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.33
11
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
NA

Magnetic Properties of Bismuth

Magnetic Characteristics of Bismuth

Specific Gravity
9.79
30
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
📊

Permeability
0.00 H/m
6
📊

Susceptibility
0.00
6
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Semiconductor
📊

Resistivity
1.29 nΩ·m
57
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.01 106/cm Ω
60
📊

Electron Affinity
91.20 kJ/mol
11
📊

Thermal Properties of Bismuth

Specific Heat
0.12 J/(kg K)
40
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
25.52 J/mol·K
37
📊

Thermal Conductivity
7.97 W/m·K
67
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
13.40 µm/(m·K)
28
📊

Enthalpy of Bismuth

Enthalpy of Vaporization
151.00 kJ/mol
46
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
10.90 kJ/mol
33
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
207.10 kJ/mol
44
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
56.70 J/mol.K
24
📊