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What is Calcium?

Calcium In Periodic Table

Calcium Symbol
Ca

Group Number
2
16
📊

Period Number
4
📊

Block
s block
📊

Element Family
Alkaline Earth
📊

CAS Number of Calcium
7440702
21

Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m

Space Group Number
225.00
2
📊

Facts about Calcium

Interesting Facts
  • Calcium ranks 5th rank in the list of earth’s abundance Percentage.
  • It is found in the compound state.
  • Gypsum or calcium sulfate is used as plaster and plaster of paris.

Sources
Earth's crust, Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals

History of Calcium

Who Discovered
Humphry Davy

Discovery
In 1808

Abundance of Calcium

Abundance In Universe
0.01 %
3
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.01 %
5
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
1.10 %
4
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
5.00 %
3
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
5
📊

Abundance In Humans
1.40 %
1
📊

Uses of Calcium

Uses & Benefits
  • It is used as a reducing agent while preparing metals like thorium and uranium. It is also used as an alloying agent for metals such as aluminum, copper & lead.
  • Calcium carbonate or lime stone is used in cement.

Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry

Medical Uses
Dentistry, Pharmaceutical Industry

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Non Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
60.50 Blood/mg dm-3
4

In Bone
170,000.00 p.p.m.
1

Physical Properties of Calcium

Calcium Melting Point
839.00 °C
52
📊

Calcium Boiling Point
1,484.00 °C
58
📊

Appearance of Calcium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Gray

Luster
NA

Hardness of Calcium

Mohs Hardness
1.75
17
📊

Brinell Hardness
170.00 MPa
44
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available

Speed of Sound
3,810.00 m/s
19
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
Not Available

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Calcium

Chemical Formula
Ca

Isotopes of Calcium

Known Isotopes
19
20
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
1.00
45
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
0.95
24
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.04
34
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
1.08
17
📊

Allen Electronegativity
1.03
39
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
3.00
9
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
589.80 kJ/mol
57
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,145.40 kJ/mol
69
📊

3rd Energy Level
4,912.40 kJ/mol
7
📊

4th Energy Level
6,491.00 kJ/mol
7
📊

5th Energy Level
8,153.00 kJ/mol
7
📊

6th Energy Level
10,496.00 kJ/mol
8
📊

7th Energy level
12,270.00 kJ/mol
12
📊

8th Energy Level
14,206.00 kJ/mol
15
📊

9th Energy Level
18,191.00 kJ/mol
12
📊

10th Energy Level
20,385.00 kJ/mol
16
📊

11th Energy Level
57,110.00 kJ/mol
3

12th Energy Level
63,410.00 kJ/mol
4

13th Energy Level
70,110.00 kJ/mol
4

14th Energy Level
78,890.00 kJ/mol
4

15th Energy Level
86,310.00 kJ/mol
5

16th Energy Level
94,000.00 kJ/mol
6

17th Energy Level
104,900.00 kJ/mol
7

18th Energy Level
111,711.00 kJ/mol
9
📊

19th Energy Level
494,850.00 kJ/mol
1

20th Energy Level
527,762.00 kJ/mol
2

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
0.75 g/amp-hr
64
📊

Electron Work Function
2.87 eV
38
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Flammability, Ionization, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Calcium

Atomic Number of Calcium
20
86
📊

Calcium Electron Configuration
[Ar] 4s2

Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
FCC-Crystal-Structure-of-Calcium.jpg#100

Atom of Calcium

Number of Protons
20
85
📊

Number of Neutrons
20
65
📊

Number of Electrons
20
85
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
197.00 pm
6
📊

Covalent Radius
176.00 pm
22
📊

Van der Waals Radius
231.00 pm
19
📊

Atomic Weight
40.08 amu
80
📊

Atomic Volume
29.90 cm3/mol
7
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
29.00 (-eV)
53
📊

Lattice Constant
558.84 pm
9
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available

Mechanical Properties of Calcium

Calcium Density

Density At Room Temperature
1.55 g/cm3
80
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
1.38 g/cm3
57
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Calcium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
25.50 (Pa)
3
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
7.40 GPa
45
📊

Bulk Modulus
17.00 GPa
43
📊

Young's Modulus
20.00 GPa
46
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.31
13
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
NA

Magnetic Properties of Calcium

Magnetic Characteristics of Calcium

Specific Gravity
4.58
57
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available

Susceptibility
Not Available

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
33.60 nΩ·m
48
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.30 106/cm Ω
6
📊

Electron Affinity
2.37 kJ/mol
39
📊

Thermal Properties of Calcium

Specific Heat
0.63 J/(kg K)
7
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
25.93 J/mol·K
34
📊

Thermal Conductivity
201.00 W/m·K
5
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
22.30 µm/(m·K)
19
📊

Enthalpy of Calcium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
150.00 kJ/mol
47
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
8.54 kJ/mol
41
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
184.00 kJ/mol
46
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
41.60 J/mol.K
36
📊