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What is Copper?

Copper In Periodic Table

Copper Symbol
Cu

Group Number
11
7
📊

Period Number
4
📊

Block
d block
📊

Element Family
Transition Metal
📊

CAS Number of Copper
7440508
37

Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m

Space Group Number
225.00
2
📊

Facts about Copper

Interesting Facts
  • Copper rarely found in its pure form in nature.
  • Copper Sulfate is mostly used in agricultural poison and as an algicide in water purification system.

Sources
Found in Minerals

History of Copper

Who Discovered
Unknown

Discovery
In Middle East (9000 BCE)

Abundance of Copper

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
12
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
13
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.01 %
13
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.01 %
17
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
8
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.00 %
9
📊

Uses of Copper

Uses & Benefits
  • It is use for coinage and bullion.
  • Most of copper element is used in manufacturing electrical and electronic equipments such as wirings and components. It is also used in construction and industrial machine.

Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
NA

Other Uses
Alloys, Coinage, Jewellery

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Non Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
1.01 Blood/mg dm-3
8

In Bone
26.00 p.p.m.
12

Physical Properties of Copper

Copper Melting Point
1,084.62 °C
40
📊

Copper Boiling Point
2,562.00 °C
43
📊

Appearance of Copper

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Copper

Luster
NA

Hardness of Copper

Mohs Hardness
3.00
12
📊

Brinell Hardness
235.00 MPa
38
📊

Vickers Hardness
343.00 MPa
28
📊

Speed of Sound
3,810.00 m/s
19
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
90.00 %
3
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Copper

Chemical Formula
Cu

Isotopes of Copper

Known Isotopes
29
10
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
1.90
11
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
1.98
9
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.75
3
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
1.49
14
📊

Allen Electronegativity
1.85
9
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
2.10
42
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
745.50 kJ/mol
22
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,957.90 kJ/mol
15
📊

3rd Energy Level
3,555.00 kJ/mol
15
📊

4th Energy Level
5,536.00 kJ/mol
12
📊

5th Energy Level
7,700.00 kJ/mol
11
📊

6th Energy Level
9,900.00 kJ/mol
10
📊

7th Energy level
13,400.00 kJ/mol
7
📊

8th Energy Level
16,000.00 kJ/mol
9
📊

9th Energy Level
19,200.00 kJ/mol
9
📊

10th Energy Level
22,400.00 kJ/mol
11
📊

11th Energy Level
25,600.00 kJ/mol
13

12th Energy Level
35,600.00 kJ/mol
7

13th Energy Level
38,700.00 kJ/mol
7

14th Energy Level
42,000.00 kJ/mol
7

15th Energy Level
46,700.00 kJ/mol
9

16th Energy Level
50,200.00 kJ/mol
10

17th Energy Level
53,700.00 kJ/mol
12

18th Energy Level
61,100.00 kJ/mol
11
📊

19th Energy Level
64,702.00 kJ/mol
13

20th Energy Level
163,700.00 kJ/mol
4

21st Energy Level
174,100.00 kJ/mol
4

22nd Energy Level
184,900.00 kJ/mol
3

23rd Energy Level
198,800.00 kJ/mol
3

24th Energy Level
210,500.00 kJ/mol
3

25th Energy Level
222,700.00 kJ/mol
3

26th Energy Level
239,100.00 kJ/mol
3

27th Energy Level
249,660.00 kJ/mol
3

28th Energy Level
1,067,358.00 kJ/mol
1

29th Energy Level
1,116,105.00 kJ/mol
1

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
1.19 g/amp-hr
53
📊

Electron Work Function
4.65 eV
11
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Corrosion, Ionization, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Copper

Atomic Number of Copper
29
78
📊

Copper Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d10 4s1

Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
FCC-Crystal-Structure-of-Copper.jpg#100

Atom of Copper

Number of Protons
29
77
📊

Number of Neutrons
35
59
📊

Number of Electrons
29
77
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
128.00 pm
46
📊

Covalent Radius
132.00 pm
48
📊

Van der Waals Radius
140.00 pm
44
📊

Atomic Weight
63.55 amu
72
📊

Atomic Volume
7.10 cm3/mol
61
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
34.00 (-eV)
50
📊

Lattice Constant
361.49 pm
35
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available

Mechanical Properties of Copper

Copper Density

Density At Room Temperature
8.96 g/cm3
43
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
8.02 g/cm3
27
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Copper

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
1.53 (Pa)
8
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
48.00 GPa
15
📊

Bulk Modulus
140.00 GPa
12
📊

Young's Modulus
120.00 GPa
17
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.34
10
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable

Magnetic Properties of Copper

Magnetic Characteristics of Copper

Specific Gravity
8.89
34
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
📊

Permeability
1.256629 * 10-6 H/m
5
📊

Susceptibility
-9.63 * 10-6
4
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
16.78 nΩ·m
50
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.60 106/cm Ω
2
📊

Electron Affinity
222.80 kJ/mol
1
📊

Thermal Properties of Copper

Specific Heat
0.38 J/(kg K)
15
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
24.44 J/mol·K
51
📊

Thermal Conductivity
401.00 W/m·K
2
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
16.50 µm/(m·K)
25
📊

Enthalpy of Copper

Enthalpy of Vaporization
283.70 kJ/mol
33
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
7.11 kJ/mol
46
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
338.90 kJ/mol
29
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
33.20 J/mol.K
45
📊