Generating Graphs...
Loading...

What is Copper?

All Metals

Nihonium
Add to compare
Moscovium
Add to compare
Tennessine
Add to compare
Copper In Periodic Table

Symbol
Cu

Group Number
11
7
📊

Period Number
4
📊

Block
d block
📊

Element Family
Transition Metal
📊

CAS Number
7440508
37

Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m

Space Group Number
225.00
2
📊

Facts about Copper

Interesting Facts
  • Copper rarely found in its pure form in nature.
  • Copper Sulfate is mostly used in agricultural poison and as an algicide in water purification system.

Sources
Found in Minerals

History of Copper

Who Discovered
Unknown

Discovery
In Middle East (9000 BCE)

Abundance of Copper

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.01 %
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.01 %
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.00 %
📊

Uses of Copper

Uses & Benefits
  • It is use for coinage and bullion.
  • Most of copper element is used in manufacturing electrical and electronic equipments such as wirings and components. It is also used in construction and industrial machine.

Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
NA

Other Uses
Alloys, Coinage, Jewellery

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Non Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
1.01 Blood/mg dm-3

In Bone
26.00 p.p.m.

Physical Properties of Copper

Melting Point
1,084.62 °C
40
📊

Boiling Point
2,562.00 °C
43
📊

Appearance of Copper

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Copper

Luster
NA
📊

Hardness of Copper

Mohs Hardness
3.00
📊

Brinell Hardness
235.00 MPa
📊

Vickers Hardness
343.00 MPa
📊

Speed of Sound
3,810.00 m/s
19
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available
📊

Reflectivity
90.00 %
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Copper

Chemical Formula
Cu

Isotopes of Copper

Known Isotopes
29
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
1.90
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
1.98
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.75
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
1.49
📊

Allen Electronegativity
1.85
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
2.10
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
745.50 kJ/mol
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,957.90 kJ/mol
📊

3rd Energy Level
3,555.00 kJ/mol
📊

4th Energy Level
5,536.00 kJ/mol
📊

5th Energy Level
7,700.00 kJ/mol
📊

6th Energy Level
9,900.00 kJ/mol
📊

7th Energy level
13,400.00 kJ/mol
📊

8th Energy Level
16,000.00 kJ/mol
📊

9th Energy Level
19,200.00 kJ/mol
📊

10th Energy Level
22,400.00 kJ/mol
📊

11th Energy Level
25,600.00 kJ/mol

12th Energy Level
35,600.00 kJ/mol

13th Energy Level
38,700.00 kJ/mol

14th Energy Level
42,000.00 kJ/mol

15th Energy Level
46,700.00 kJ/mol

16th Energy Level
50,200.00 kJ/mol

17th Energy Level
53,700.00 kJ/mol

18th Energy Level
61,100.00 kJ/mol
📊

19th Energy Level
64,702.00 kJ/mol

20th Energy Level
163,700.00 kJ/mol

21st Energy Level
174,100.00 kJ/mol

22nd Energy Level
184,900.00 kJ/mol

23rd Energy Level
198,800.00 kJ/mol

24th Energy Level
210,500.00 kJ/mol

25th Energy Level
222,700.00 kJ/mol

26th Energy Level
239,100.00 kJ/mol

27th Energy Level
249,660.00 kJ/mol

28th Energy Level
1,067,358.00 kJ/mol

29th Energy Level
1,116,105.00 kJ/mol

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
1.19 g/amp-hr
53
📊

Electron Work Function
4.65 eV
11
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Corrosion, Ionization, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Copper

Atomic Number
29
78
📊

Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d10 4s1

Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
FCC-Crystal-Structure-of-Copper.jpg#100

Atom of Copper

Number of Protons
29
📊

Number of Neutrons
35
📊

Number of Electrons
29
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
128.00 pm
📊

Covalent Radius
132.00 pm
📊

Van der Waals Radius
140.00 pm
📊

Atomic Weight
63.55 amu
72
📊

Atomic Volume
7.10 cm3/mol
61
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
34.00 (-eV)
50
📊

Lattice Constant
361.49 pm
35
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available
📊

Mechanical Properties of Copper

Density of Copper

Density At Room Temperature
8.96 g/cm3
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
8.02 g/cm3
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available
📊

Viscosity
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure of Copper

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
1.53 (Pa)
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available
📊

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
48.00 GPa
📊

Bulk Modulus
140.00 GPa
📊

Young's Modulus
120.00 GPa
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.34
10
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable

Magnetic Properties of Copper

Magnetic Characteristics of Copper

Specific Gravity
8.89
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
📊

Permeability
1.256629 * 10-6 H/m
📊

Susceptibility
-9.63 * 10-6
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
16.78 nΩ·m
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.60 106/cm Ω
📊

Electron Affinity
222.80 kJ/mol
📊

Thermal Properties of Copper

Specific Heat
0.38 J/(kg K)
15
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
24.44 J/mol·K
51
📊

Thermal Conductivity
401.00 W/m·K
2
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
16.50 µm/(m·K)
25
📊

Enthalpy of Copper

Enthalpy of Vaporization
283.70 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
7.11 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
338.90 kJ/mol
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
33.20 J/mol.K
45
📊

Copper Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Copper metal is also represented by the symbol Cu. This atomic symbol of Copper is useful in indicating the position of metal Cu in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Copper? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Cu metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Copper

Periodic table of Copper comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Copper metal belongs to Transition Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 11, whereas its period number is 4. It is placed under d block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent d block elements.

Copper Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Copper are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Copper is 29 and its atomic weight is 63.55 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Ar] 3d10 4s1. Nuclear particles in Copper atom are 35 neutrons, 29 protons and 29 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Copper

Physical and chemical characteristics of Copper are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Copper include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Copper Solid. It starts melting at 1,084.62 °C. All these Copper metal properties together define what is Copper?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og