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What is Lead?

Lead In Periodic Table

Lead Symbol
Pb

Group Number
14
4
📊

Period Number
6
📊

Block
p block
📊

Element Family
Post-​Transition
📊

CAS Number of Lead
7439921
86

Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m

Space Group Number
225.00
2
📊

Facts about Lead

Interesting Facts
  • Galena mineral contains almost 87% of Lead metal in it, Galena is sulfide mineral.
  • The best available source of Lead metal today is by recycling automobile batteries.

Sources
Earth's crust, Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of metals, Ores of Minerals

History of Lead

Who Discovered
Unknown

Discovery
In Middle Easterns (7000 BCE)

Abundance of Lead

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
16
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
19
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.00 %
23
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.00 %
26
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
22
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.00 %
8
📊

Uses of Lead

Uses & Benefits
  • It is also used in insecticides, hair dyes and as an anti-knocking additive for petrol. But all these are banned by the government as Lead metal is known for detrimental to health.

Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Surgical Instruments Manufacturing

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
0.21 Blood/mg dm-3
11

In Bone
30.00 p.p.m.
10

Physical Properties of Lead

Lead Melting Point
327.50 °C
67
📊

Lead Boiling Point
1,740.00 °C
53
📊

Appearance of Lead

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Gray

Luster
Metallic
📊

Hardness of Lead

Mohs Hardness
1.50
18
📊

Brinell Hardness
38.00 MPa
49
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available

Speed of Sound
1,190.00 m/s
52
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
Not Available

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Lead

Chemical Formula
Pb

Isotopes of Lead

Known Isotopes
35
4
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
1.87
13
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
2.29
4
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.55
11
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
2.41
2
📊

Allen Electronegativity
1.85
8
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
1.67
51
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
715.60 kJ/mol
31
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,450.50 kJ/mol
43
📊

3rd Energy Level
3,081.50 kJ/mol
23
📊

4th Energy Level
4,083.00 kJ/mol
35
📊

5th Energy Level
6,640.00 kJ/mol
20
📊

6th Energy Level
Not Available

7th Energy level
Not Available

8th Energy Level
Not Available

9th Energy Level
Not Available

10th Energy Level
Not Available

11th Energy Level
Not Available

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
3.87 g/amp-hr
9
📊

Electron Work Function
4.25 eV
21
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes

Atomic Properties of Lead

Atomic Number of Lead
82
34
📊

Lead Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2

Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
FCC-Crystal-Structure-of-Lead.jpg#100

Atom of Lead

Number of Protons
82
34
📊

Number of Neutrons
125
20
📊

Number of Electrons
82
34
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
175.00 pm
19
📊

Covalent Radius
146.00 pm
38
📊

Van der Waals Radius
202.00 pm
27
📊

Atomic Weight
207.20 amu
30
📊

Atomic Volume
18.17 cm3/mol
27
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
24.20 (-eV)
57
📊

Lattice Constant
495.08 pm
16
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available

Mechanical Properties of Lead

Lead Density

Density At Room Temperature
11.34 g/cm3
33
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
10.66 g/cm3
15
📊

Tensile Strength
12.00 MPa
20
📊

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Lead

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
1.64 (Pa)
7
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
5.60 GPa
47
📊

Bulk Modulus
46.00 GPa
24
📊

Young's Modulus
16.00 GPa
48
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.44
3
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable

Magnetic Properties of Lead

Magnetic Characteristics of Lead

Specific Gravity
11.35
25
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available

Susceptibility
Not Available

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Poor Conductor
📊

Resistivity
208.00 nΩ·m
16
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.05 106/cm Ω
36
📊

Electron Affinity
35.10 kJ/mol
28
📊

Thermal Properties of Lead

Specific Heat
0.13 J/(kg K)
39
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
26.65 J/mol·K
26
📊

Thermal Conductivity
35.30 W/m·K
38
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
28.90 µm/(m·K)
13
📊

Enthalpy of Lead

Enthalpy of Vaporization
179.40 kJ/mol
43
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
4.77 kJ/mol
53
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
194.60 kJ/mol
45
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
64.80 J/mol.K
17
📊