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Lead
Lead




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What is Lead?

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Pb
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
14
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
p block
1.5 Element Family
Post-​Transition
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7439921
Rank: 86 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
225.00
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Galena mineral contains almost 87% of Lead metal in it, Galena is sulfide mineral.
  • The best available source of Lead metal today is by recycling automobile batteries.
2.2 Sources
Earth's crust, Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of metals, Ores of Minerals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Unknown
2.3.2 Discovery
In Middle Easterns (7000 BCE)
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
1 * 10-6 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.000001 %
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
0.00 %
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • It is also used in insecticides, hair dyes and as an anti-knocking additive for petrol. But all these are banned by the government as Lead metal is known for detrimental to health.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Surgical Instruments Manufacturing
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
70% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.21 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
30.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
327.50 °C
Rank: 67 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
1,740.00 °C
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Gray
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
1.50
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
38.00 MPa
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
1,190.00 m/s
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
20% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Pb
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
35
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.87
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
2.29
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.55
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
2.41
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.85
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
1.67
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
715.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,450.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
3,081.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
4,083.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
6,640.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
1.3 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
3.87 g/amp-hr
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Beryllium
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1.5 Electron Work Function
Platinum
4.25 eV
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Cesium
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1.11 Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes
2 Atomic
2.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
82
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Lithium
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2.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
2.3 Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
2.3.1 Crystal Lattice
2.4 Atom
2.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
82
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Lithium
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2.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
125
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Lithium
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2.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
82
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Lithium
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2.5 Radius of an Atom
2.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
175.00 pm
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
146.00 pm
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
202.00 pm
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Zinc
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2.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
207.20 amu
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Lithium
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2.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
18.17 cm3/mol
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Manganese
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2.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
2.8.1 Previous Element
2.8.2 Next Element
2.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
24.20 (-eV)
Rank: 57 (Overall)
Francium
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2.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
495.08 pm
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
2.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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3 Mechanical
3.1 Density
3.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
11.34 g/cm3
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Lithium
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3.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
10.66 g/cm3
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Lithium
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3.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
12.00 MPa
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Indium
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3.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
3.4 Vapor Pressure
3.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
1.64 (Pa)
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Cerium
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3.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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3.5 Elasticity properties
3.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
5.60 GPa
Rank: 47 (Overall)
Potassium
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3.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
46.00 GPa
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Cesium
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3.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
16.00 GPa
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Cesium
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3.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.44
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Beryllium
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3.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable
4 Magnetic
4.1 Magnetic Characteristics
4.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
11.35
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Lithium
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4.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
4.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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4.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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4.2 Electrical Properties
4.2.1 Electrical Property
Poor Conductor
4.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
208.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.05 106/cm Ω
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
35.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Mercury
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5 Thermal
5.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.13 J/(kg K)
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Americium
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5.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
26.65 J/mol·K
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
35.30 W/m·K
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Neptunium
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5.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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5.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
28.90 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Tungsten
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5.6 Enthalpy
5.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
179.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Zinc
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5.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
4.77 kJ/mol
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
194.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Mercury
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5.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
64.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Beryllium
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