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What is Lead?

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Lead In Periodic Table

Symbol
Pb

Group Number
14
4
📊

Period Number
6
📊

Block
p block
📊

Element Family
Post-​Transition
📊

CAS Number
7439921
86

Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m

Space Group Number
225.00
2
📊

Facts about Lead

Interesting Facts
  • Galena mineral contains almost 87% of Lead metal in it, Galena is sulfide mineral.
  • The best available source of Lead metal today is by recycling automobile batteries.

Sources
Earth's crust, Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of metals, Ores of Minerals

History of Lead

Who Discovered
Unknown

Discovery
In Middle Easterns (7000 BCE)

Abundance of Lead

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
16
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
19
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.00 %
23
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.00 %
26
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
22
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.00 %
8
📊

Uses of Lead

Uses & Benefits
  • It is also used in insecticides, hair dyes and as an anti-knocking additive for petrol. But all these are banned by the government as Lead metal is known for detrimental to health.

Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Surgical Instruments Manufacturing

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
0.21 Blood/mg dm-3
11

In Bone
30.00 p.p.m.
10

Physical Properties of Lead

Melting Point
327.50 °C
67
📊

Boiling Point
1,740.00 °C
53
📊

Appearance of Lead

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Gray

Luster
Metallic
📊

Hardness of Lead

Mohs Hardness
1.50
18
📊

Brinell Hardness
38.00 MPa
49
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available
📊

Speed of Sound
1,190.00 m/s
52
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available
📊

Reflectivity
Not Available
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Lead

Chemical Formula
Pb

Isotopes of Lead

Known Isotopes
35
4
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
1.87
13
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
2.29
4
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.55
11
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
2.41
2
📊

Allen Electronegativity
1.85
8
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
1.67
51
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
715.60 kJ/mol
31
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,450.50 kJ/mol
43
📊

3rd Energy Level
3,081.50 kJ/mol
23
📊

4th Energy Level
4,083.00 kJ/mol
35
📊

5th Energy Level
6,640.00 kJ/mol
20
📊

6th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

7th Energy level
Not Available
📊

8th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

9th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

10th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

11th Energy Level
Not Available

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
3.87 g/amp-hr
9
📊

Electron Work Function
4.25 eV
21
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes

Atomic Properties of Lead

Atomic Number
82
34
📊

Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2

Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
FCC-Crystal-Structure-of-Lead.jpg#100

Atom of Lead

Number of Protons
82
34
📊

Number of Neutrons
125
20
📊

Number of Electrons
82
34
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
175.00 pm
19
📊

Covalent Radius
146.00 pm
38
📊

Van der Waals Radius
202.00 pm
27
📊

Atomic Weight
207.20 amu
30
📊

Atomic Volume
18.17 cm3/mol
27
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
24.20 (-eV)
57
📊

Lattice Constant
495.08 pm
16
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available
📊

Mechanical Properties of Lead

Density of Lead

Density At Room Temperature
11.34 g/cm3
33
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
10.66 g/cm3
15
📊

Tensile Strength
12.00 MPa
20
📊

Viscosity
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure of Lead

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
1.64 (Pa)
7
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available
📊

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
5.60 GPa
47
📊

Bulk Modulus
46.00 GPa
24
📊

Young's Modulus
16.00 GPa
48
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.44
3
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable

Magnetic Properties of Lead

Magnetic Characteristics of Lead

Specific Gravity
11.35
25
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available
📊

Susceptibility
Not Available
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Poor Conductor
📊

Resistivity
208.00 nΩ·m
16
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.05 106/cm Ω
36
📊

Electron Affinity
35.10 kJ/mol
28
📊

Thermal Properties of Lead

Specific Heat
0.13 J/(kg K)
39
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
26.65 J/mol·K
26
📊

Thermal Conductivity
35.30 W/m·K
38
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
28.90 µm/(m·K)
13
📊

Enthalpy of Lead

Enthalpy of Vaporization
179.40 kJ/mol
43
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
4.77 kJ/mol
53
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
194.60 kJ/mol
45
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
64.80 J/mol.K
17
📊

Lead Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Lead metal is also represented by the symbol Pb. This atomic symbol of Lead is useful in indicating the position of metal Pb in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Lead? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Pb metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Lead

Periodic table of Lead comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Lead metal belongs to Post Transition Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 14, whereas its period number is 6. It is placed under p block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent p block elements.

Lead Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Lead are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Lead is 82 and its atomic weight is 207.20 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. Nuclear particles in Lead atom are 125 neutrons, 82 protons and 82 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Lead

Physical and chemical characteristics of Lead are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Lead include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Gray Solid. It starts melting at 327.50 °C. All these Lead metal properties together define what is Lead?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og