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What is Lithium?

All Metals

Nihonium
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Tennessine
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Lithium In Periodic Table

Symbol
Li

Group Number
1
17
📊

Period Number
2
📊

Block
s block
📊

Element Family
Alkali
📊

CAS Number
7439932
85

Space Group Name
Im_ 3m

Space Group Number
229.00
1
📊

Facts about Lithium

Interesting Facts
  • Heat capacity of Lithium is very high.
  • Lithium inflammable and highly explosive metal, hence it has to be stored properly.

Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining

History of Lithium

Who Discovered
Johan August Arfwedson

Discovery
In 1817

Abundance of Lithium

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.00 %
📊

Uses of Lithium

Uses & Benefits
  • The main usage of Lithium is manufacturing rechargeable batteries for electronic equipment and gadgets.
  • it is also used in manufacturing non-rechargeable batteries.

Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
NA

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
NA
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3

In Bone
1.30 p.p.m.

Physical Properties of Lithium

Melting Point
180.54 °C
73
📊

Boiling Point
1,347.00 °C
62
📊

Appearance of Lithium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silvery White

Luster
NA
📊

Hardness of Lithium

Mohs Hardness
0.60
📊

Brinell Hardness
5.00 MPa
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available
📊

Speed of Sound
6,000.00 m/s
3
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available
📊

Reflectivity
Not Available
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Lithium

Chemical Formula
Li

Isotopes of Lithium

Known Isotopes
8
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
0.98
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
0.89
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
0.97
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
0.97
📊

Allen Electronegativity
0.91
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
3.02
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
520.20 kJ/mol
📊

2nd Energy Level
7,298.10 kJ/mol
📊

3rd Energy Level
11,815.00 kJ/mol
📊

4th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

5th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

6th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

7th Energy level
Not Available
📊

8th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

9th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

10th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

11th Energy Level
Not Available

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
0.26 g/amp-hr
75
📊

Electron Work Function
2.90 eV
37
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Corrosion, Flammable, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes

Atomic Properties of Lithium

Atomic Number
3
92
📊

Electron Configuration
[He] 2s1

Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
BCC-Crystal-Structure-.jpg#100

Atom of Lithium

Number of Protons
3
📊

Number of Neutrons
4
📊

Number of Electrons
3
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
152.00 pm
📊

Covalent Radius
128.00 pm
📊

Van der Waals Radius
182.00 pm
📊

Atomic Weight
6.94 amu
86
📊

Atomic Volume
13.10 cm3/mol
39
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element
No Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
19.00 (-eV)
60
📊

Lattice Constant
351.00 pm
42
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available
📊

Mechanical Properties of Lithium

Density of Lithium

Density At Room Temperature
0.53 g/cm3
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
0.51 g/cm3
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available
📊

Viscosity
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure of Lithium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
109.00 (Pa)
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available
📊

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
4.20 GPa
📊

Bulk Modulus
11.00 GPa
📊

Young's Modulus
4.90 GPa
📊

Poisson Ratio
Not Available
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
NA

Magnetic Properties of Lithium

Magnetic Characteristics of Lithium

Specific Gravity
0.53
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available
📊

Susceptibility
Not Available
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
92.80 nΩ·m
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.11 106/cm Ω
📊

Electron Affinity
59.60 kJ/mol
📊

Thermal Properties of Lithium

Specific Heat
3.60 J/(kg K)
1
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
24.86 J/mol·K
48
📊

Thermal Conductivity
84.80 W/m·K
20
📊

Critical Temperature
3,223.00 K
1

Thermal Expansion
46.00 µm/(m·K)
7
📊

Enthalpy of Lithium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
134.70 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
3.00 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
160.70 kJ/mol
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
29.10 J/mol.K
51
📊

Lithium Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Lithium metal is also represented by the symbol Li. This atomic symbol of Lithium is useful in indicating the position of metal Li in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Lithium? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Li metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Lithium

Periodic table of Lithium comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Lithium metal belongs to Alkali Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 1, whereas its period number is 2. It is placed under s block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent s block elements.

Lithium Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Lithium are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Lithium is 3 and its atomic weight is 6.94 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [He] 2s1. Nuclear particles in Lithium atom are 4 neutrons, 3 protons and 3 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Lithium

Physical and chemical characteristics of Lithium are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Lithium include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Silvery White Solid. It starts melting at 180.54 °C. All these Lithium metal properties together define what is Lithium?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og