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What is Lithium?

Lithium In Periodic Table

Lithium Symbol
Li

Group Number
1
17
📊

Period Number
2
📊

Block
s block
📊

Element Family
Alkali
📊

CAS Number of Lithium
7439932
85

Space Group Name
Im_ 3m

Space Group Number
229.00
1
📊

Facts about Lithium

Interesting Facts
  • Heat capacity of Lithium is very high.
  • Lithium inflammable and highly explosive metal, hence it has to be stored properly.

Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining

History of Lithium

Who Discovered
Johan August Arfwedson

Discovery
In 1817

Abundance of Lithium

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
18
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
12
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.00 %
22
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.00 %
44
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
15
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.00 %
16
📊

Uses of Lithium

Uses & Benefits
  • The main usage of Lithium is manufacturing rechargeable batteries for electronic equipment and gadgets.
  • it is also used in manufacturing non-rechargeable batteries.

Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
NA

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
NA

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
27

In Bone
1.30 p.p.m.
17

Physical Properties of Lithium

Lithium Melting Point
180.54 °C
73
📊

Lithium Boiling Point
1,347.00 °C
62
📊

Appearance of Lithium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silvery White

Luster
NA

Hardness of Lithium

Mohs Hardness
0.60
21
📊

Brinell Hardness
5.00 MPa
52
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available

Speed of Sound
6,000.00 m/s
3
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
Not Available

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Lithium

Chemical Formula
Li

Isotopes of Lithium

Known Isotopes
8
30
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
0.98
46
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
0.89
26
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
0.97
38
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
0.97
19
📊

Allen Electronegativity
0.91
41
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
3.02
8
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
520.20 kJ/mol
81
📊

2nd Energy Level
7,298.10 kJ/mol
3
📊

3rd Energy Level
11,815.00 kJ/mol
4
📊

4th Energy Level
Not Available

5th Energy Level
Not Available

6th Energy Level
Not Available

7th Energy level
Not Available

8th Energy Level
Not Available

9th Energy Level
Not Available

10th Energy Level
Not Available

11th Energy Level
Not Available

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
0.26 g/amp-hr
75
📊

Electron Work Function
2.90 eV
37
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Corrosion, Flammable, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes

Atomic Properties of Lithium

Atomic Number of Lithium
3
92
📊

Lithium Electron Configuration
[He] 2s1

Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
BCC-Crystal-Structure-.jpg#100

Atom of Lithium

Number of Protons
3
91
📊

Number of Neutrons
4
69
📊

Number of Electrons
3
91
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
152.00 pm
31
📊

Covalent Radius
128.00 pm
50
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Van der Waals Radius
182.00 pm
35
📊

Atomic Weight
6.94 amu
86
📊

Atomic Volume
13.10 cm3/mol
39
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element
No Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
19.00 (-eV)
60
📊

Lattice Constant
351.00 pm
42
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available

Mechanical Properties of Lithium

Lithium Density

Density At Room Temperature
0.53 g/cm3
84
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
0.51 g/cm3
60
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Lithium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
109.00 (Pa)
2
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
4.20 GPa
49
📊

Bulk Modulus
11.00 GPa
44
📊

Young's Modulus
4.90 GPa
55
📊

Poisson Ratio
Not Available

Other Mechanical Properties
NA

Magnetic Properties of Lithium

Magnetic Characteristics of Lithium

Specific Gravity
0.53
70
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available

Susceptibility
Not Available

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
92.80 nΩ·m
33
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.11 106/cm Ω
19
📊

Electron Affinity
59.60 kJ/mol
16
📊

Thermal Properties of Lithium

Specific Heat
3.60 J/(kg K)
1
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
24.86 J/mol·K
48
📊

Thermal Conductivity
84.80 W/m·K
20
📊

Critical Temperature
3,223.00 K
1

Thermal Expansion
46.00 µm/(m·K)
7
📊

Enthalpy of Lithium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
134.70 kJ/mol
50
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
3.00 kJ/mol
57
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
160.70 kJ/mol
52
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
29.10 J/mol.K
51
📊