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What is Magnesium?

Magnesium In Periodic Table

Magnesium Symbol
Mg

Group Number
2
16
📊

Period Number
3
📊

Block
s block
📊

Element Family
Alkaline Earth
📊

CAS Number of Magnesium
7439954
83

Space Group Name
P63/mmc

Space Group Number
194.00
5
📊

Facts about Magnesium

Interesting Facts
  • Magnesium ions are present in every chlorophyll of every green plant .
  • Controlling Magnesium fire by pouring water on it will result in explosions.

Sources
By Electrolysis Process, In Ocean, Mining

History of Magnesium

Who Discovered
Joseph Black

Discovery
In 1755

Abundance of Magnesium

Abundance In Universe
0.06 %
2
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.07 %
3
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
12.00 %
2
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
2.90 %
4
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.13 %
2
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.03 %
4
📊

Uses of Magnesium

Uses & Benefits
  • Magnesium aluminum alloy improves the mechanical strength and welding characteristics and hence it is used in aeroplane and car manufacturing.
  • It is also used to remove sulfur from the molten iron and steel.

Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Ammunition Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Pharmaceutical Industry

Medical Uses
NA

Other Uses
Surgical Instruments Manufacturing

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Non Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
37.80 Blood/mg dm-3
5

In Bone
1,800.00 p.p.m.
4

Physical Properties of Magnesium

Magnesium Melting Point
650.00 °C
61
📊

Magnesium Boiling Point
1,107.00 °C
66
📊

Appearance of Magnesium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Gray

Luster
NA

Hardness of Magnesium

Mohs Hardness
2.50
14
📊

Brinell Hardness
260.00 MPa
36
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available

Speed of Sound
4,940.00 m/s
11
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
74.00 %
7
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Magnesium

Chemical Formula
Mg

Isotopes of Magnesium

Known Isotopes
15
24
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
1.31
31
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
1.32
18
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.23
25
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
1.37
16
📊

Allen Electronegativity
1.29
35
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
2.69
23
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
737.70 kJ/mol
24
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,450.70 kJ/mol
42
📊

3rd Energy Level
7,732.70 kJ/mol
5
📊

4th Energy Level
10,542.50 kJ/mol
4
📊

5th Energy Level
13,630.00 kJ/mol
3
📊

6th Energy Level
18,020.00 kJ/mol
3
📊

7th Energy level
21,711.00 kJ/mol
3
📊

8th Energy Level
25,661.00 kJ/mol
3
📊

9th Energy Level
31,653.00 kJ/mol
3
📊

10th Energy Level
35,458.00 kJ/mol
5
📊

11th Energy Level
169,988.00 kJ/mol
1

12th Energy Level
189,368.00 kJ/mol
2

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
0.45 g/amp-hr
69
📊

Electron Work Function
3.66 eV
29
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Corrosion, Highly Inflammable, Ionization, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Magnesium

Atomic Number of Magnesium
12
89
📊

Magnesium Electron Configuration
[Ne] 3s2

Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
📊

Crystal Lattice
HCP-Crystal-Structure-of-Magnesium.jpg#100

Atom of Magnesium

Number of Protons
12
88
📊

Number of Neutrons
12
67
📊

Number of Electrons
12
88
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
160.00 pm
27
📊

Covalent Radius
141.00 pm
43
📊

Van der Waals Radius
173.00 pm
37
📊

Atomic Weight
24.31 amu
83
📊

Atomic Volume
13.97 cm3/mol
37
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
40.00 (-eV)
47
📊

Lattice Constant
320.94 pm
54
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available

Mechanical Properties of Magnesium

Magnesium Density

Density At Room Temperature
1.74 g/cm3
79
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
1.58 g/cm3
55
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Magnesium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Not Available

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
17.00 GPa
37
📊

Bulk Modulus
45.00 GPa
25
📊

Young's Modulus
45.00 GPa
39
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.29
15
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
NA

Magnetic Properties of Magnesium

Magnetic Characteristics of Magnesium

Specific Gravity
1.74
66
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available

Susceptibility
Not Available

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
43.90 nΩ·m
45
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.23 106/cm Ω
7
📊

Electron Affinity
0.00 kJ/mol
40
📊

Thermal Properties of Magnesium

Specific Heat
1.02 J/(kg K)
4
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
24.87 J/mol·K
47
📊

Thermal Conductivity
156.00 W/m·K
8
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
24.80 µm/(m·K)
15
📊

Enthalpy of Magnesium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
128.70 kJ/mol
52
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
8.95 kJ/mol
39
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
148.50 kJ/mol
53
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
32.70 J/mol.K
46
📊