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What is Potassium?

Potassium In Periodic Table

Potassium Symbol
K

Group Number
1
17
📊

Period Number
4
📊

Block
s block
📊

Element Family
Alkali
📊

CAS Number of Potassium
7440097
70

Space Group Name
Im_ 3m

Space Group Number
229.00
1
📊

Facts about Potassium

Interesting Facts
  • In the list of most abundant element Potassium is ranked 7th.
  • Potassium can easily be sliced (chopped) down using knife.

Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining

History of Potassium

Who Discovered
Humphry Davy

Discovery
In 1807

Abundance of Potassium

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
9
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
10
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.07 %
9
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
1.50 %
6
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.04 %
3
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.20 %
2
📊

Uses of Potassium

Uses & Benefits
  • Potassium’s compounds are in high demand for their application in Fertilizer manufacturing.
  • Potassium carbonate is used in glass manufacturing and Potassium carbonate in manufacturing detergent and body wash.

Industrial Uses
Ammunition Industry, Chemical Industry

Medical Uses
Pharmaceutical Industry

Other Uses
NA

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
1,620.00 Blood/mg dm-3
2

In Bone
2,100.00 p.p.m.
3

Physical Properties of Potassium

Potassium Melting Point
63.65 °C
77
📊

Potassium Boiling Point
774.00 °C
72
📊

Appearance of Potassium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silvery Gray

Luster
NA

Hardness of Potassium

Mohs Hardness
0.40
23
📊

Brinell Hardness
0.36 MPa
54
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available

Speed of Sound
2,000.00 m/s
45
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
Not Available

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Potassium

Chemical Formula
K

Isotopes of Potassium

Known Isotopes
20
19
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
0.82
51
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
0.45
31
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
0.91
39
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
0.73
23
📊

Allen Electronegativity
0.73
45
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
3.18
3
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
418.80 kJ/mol
87
📊

2nd Energy Level
3,052.00 kJ/mol
5
📊

3rd Energy Level
4,420.00 kJ/mol
8
📊

4th Energy Level
5,877.00 kJ/mol
9
📊

5th Energy Level
7,975.00 kJ/mol
8
📊

6th Energy Level
9,590.00 kJ/mol
13
📊

7th Energy level
11,343.00 kJ/mol
17
📊

8th Energy Level
14,944.00 kJ/mol
13
📊

9th Energy Level
16,963.70 kJ/mol
15
📊

10th Energy Level
48,610.00 kJ/mol
3
📊

11th Energy Level
54,490.00 kJ/mol
4

12th Energy Level
60,730.00 kJ/mol
5

13th Energy Level
68,950.00 kJ/mol
5

14th Energy Level
75,900.00 kJ/mol
5

15th Energy Level
83,080.00 kJ/mol
6

16th Energy Level
93,400.00 kJ/mol
7

17th Energy Level
99,710.00 kJ/mol
8

18th Energy Level
444,880.00 kJ/mol
1
📊

19th Energy Level
476,063.00 kJ/mol
2

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
1.46 g/amp-hr
47
📊

Electron Work Function
2.30 eV
44
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Flammability, Ionization, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Potassium

Atomic Number of Potassium
19
87
📊

Potassium Electron Configuration
[Ar] 4s1

Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
BCC-Crystal-Structure-.jpg#100

Atom of Potassium

Number of Protons
19
86
📊

Number of Neutrons
20
65
📊

Number of Electrons
19
86
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
227.00 pm
3
📊

Covalent Radius
203.00 pm
9
📊

Van der Waals Radius
275.00 pm
5
📊

Atomic Weight
39.10 amu
81
📊

Atomic Volume
45.46 cm3/mol
3
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
10.40 (-eV)
63
📊

Lattice Constant
532.80 pm
12
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available

Mechanical Properties of Potassium

Potassium Density

Density At Room Temperature
0.86 g/cm3
83
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
0.83 g/cm3
59
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Potassium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Not Available

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
1.30 GPa
52
📊

Bulk Modulus
3.10 GPa
48
📊

Young's Modulus
3.53 GPa
56
📊

Poisson Ratio
Not Available

Other Mechanical Properties
NA

Magnetic Properties of Potassium

Magnetic Characteristics of Potassium

Specific Gravity
0.86
69
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available

Susceptibility
Not Available

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
72.00 nΩ·m
37
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.14 106/cm Ω
14
📊

Electron Affinity
48.40 kJ/mol
22
📊

Thermal Properties of Potassium

Specific Heat
0.75 J/(kg K)
6
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
29.60 J/mol·K
6
📊

Thermal Conductivity
102.50 W/m·K
15
📊

Critical Temperature
2,223.00 K
3

Thermal Expansion
83.30 µm/(m·K)
3
📊

Enthalpy of Potassium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
77.50 kJ/mol
55
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
2.32 kJ/mol
60
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
89.50 kJ/mol
58
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
64.70 J/mol.K
18
📊