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What is Ruthenium?

Ruthenium In Periodic Table

Ruthenium Symbol
Ru

Group Number
8
10
📊

Period Number
5
📊

Block
d block
📊

Element Family
Transition Metal
📊

CAS Number of Ruthenium
7440188
61

Space Group Name
P63/mmc

Space Group Number
194.00
5
📊

Facts about Ruthenium

Interesting Facts
  • Ruthenium element has been extracted from used nuclear fuel.
  • Ruthenium metal also produces as a by-product of the Nickel mining.

Sources
By-product of Nickel Refining, Found in Minerals, Mining

History of Ruthenium

Who Discovered
Karl Ernst Claus

Discovery
In 1844

Abundance of Ruthenium

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
20
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
23
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.00 %
26
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.00 %
54
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
38
📊

Abundance In Humans
Not Available

Uses of Ruthenium

Uses & Benefits
  • It is used for producing chip resistors and contact.
  • Ruthenium oxide is used to coat the anodes cells for chlorine production in chemical industry. It also works as catalysts for ammonia and acetic acid reaction.

Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Medical Research

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Low Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
Not Available

In Bone
Not Available

Physical Properties of Ruthenium

Ruthenium Melting Point
2,250.00 °C
8
📊

Ruthenium Boiling Point
3,900.00 °C
14
📊

Appearance of Ruthenium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silvery White

Luster
Metallic
📊

Hardness of Ruthenium

Mohs Hardness
6.50
5
📊

Brinell Hardness
2,160.00 MPa
3
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available

Speed of Sound
5,970.00 m/s
4
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
Not Available

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Ruthenium

Chemical Formula
Ru

Isotopes of Ruthenium

Known Isotopes
26
13
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
2.20
4
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
Not Available

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.42
18
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Not Available

Allen Electronegativity
1.54
25
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
1.80
49
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Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
710.20 kJ/mol
32
📊

2nd Energy Level
710.22 kJ/mol
83
📊

3rd Energy Level
2,747.00 kJ/mol
37
📊

4th Energy Level
Not Available

5th Energy Level
Not Available

6th Energy Level
Not Available

7th Energy level
Not Available

8th Energy Level
Not Available

9th Energy Level
Not Available

10th Energy Level
Not Available

11th Energy Level
Not Available

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
1.26 g/amp-hr
51
📊

Electron Work Function
4.71 eV
9
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Ruthenium

Atomic Number of Ruthenium
44
68
📊

Ruthenium Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d7 5s1

Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
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Crystal Lattice
rystal-Structure-of-Ruthenium.jpg#100

Atom of Ruthenium

Number of Protons
44
67
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Number of Neutrons
57
51
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Number of Electrons
44
67
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Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
134.00 pm
43
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Covalent Radius
146.00 pm
38
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Van der Waals Radius
200.00 pm
28
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Atomic Weight
101.07 amu
62
📊

Atomic Volume
8.30 cm3/mol
59
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
64.00 (-eV)
22
📊

Lattice Constant
270.59 pm
67
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3

Lattice C/A Ratio
1.58
11
📊

Mechanical Properties of Ruthenium

Ruthenium Density

Density At Room Temperature
12.45 g/cm3
27
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
10.65 g/cm3
16
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Ruthenium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Not Available

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
0.00 (Pa)
23
📊

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
173.00 GPa
4
📊

Bulk Modulus
220.00 GPa
7
📊

Young's Modulus
447.00 GPa
3
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.30
14
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Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable

Magnetic Properties of Ruthenium

Magnetic Characteristics of Ruthenium

Specific Gravity
12.45
19
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available

Susceptibility
Not Available

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
71.00 nΩ·m
38
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.14 106/cm Ω
16
📊

Electron Affinity
101.30 kJ/mol
10
📊

Thermal Properties of Ruthenium

Specific Heat
0.24 J/(kg K)
24
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
24.06 J/mol·K
54
📊

Thermal Conductivity
117.00 W/m·K
13
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
6.40 µm/(m·K)
51
📊

Enthalpy of Ruthenium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
567.80 kJ/mol
10
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
25.50 kJ/mol
7
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
603.00 kJ/mol
9
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
28.50 J/mol.K
54
📊