Generating Graphs...
Loading...

What is Ruthenium?

All Metals

Nihonium
Add to compare
Moscovium
Add to compare
Tennessine
Add to compare
Ruthenium In Periodic Table

Symbol
Ru

Group Number
8
10
📊

Period Number
5
📊

Block
d block
📊

Element Family
Transition Metal
📊

CAS Number
7440188
61

Space Group Name
P63/mmc

Space Group Number
194.00
5
📊

Facts about Ruthenium

Interesting Facts
  • Ruthenium element has been extracted from used nuclear fuel.
  • Ruthenium metal also produces as a by-product of the Nickel mining.

Sources
By-product of Nickel Refining, Found in Minerals, Mining

History of Ruthenium

Who Discovered
Karl Ernst Claus

Discovery
In 1844

Abundance of Ruthenium

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Humans
Not Available
📊

Uses of Ruthenium

Uses & Benefits
  • It is used for producing chip resistors and contact.
  • Ruthenium oxide is used to coat the anodes cells for chlorine production in chemical industry. It also works as catalysts for ammonia and acetic acid reaction.

Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Medical Research

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Low Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
Not Available

In Bone
Not Available

Physical Properties of Ruthenium

Melting Point
2,250.00 °C
8
📊

Boiling Point
3,900.00 °C
14
📊

Appearance of Ruthenium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silvery White

Luster
Metallic
📊

Hardness of Ruthenium

Mohs Hardness
6.50
📊

Brinell Hardness
2,160.00 MPa
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available
📊

Speed of Sound
5,970.00 m/s
4
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available
📊

Reflectivity
Not Available
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Ruthenium

Chemical Formula
Ru

Isotopes of Ruthenium

Known Isotopes
26
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
2.20
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
Not Available
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.42
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Not Available
📊

Allen Electronegativity
1.54
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
1.80
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
710.20 kJ/mol
📊

2nd Energy Level
710.22 kJ/mol
📊

3rd Energy Level
2,747.00 kJ/mol
📊

4th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

5th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

6th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

7th Energy level
Not Available
📊

8th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

9th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

10th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

11th Energy Level
Not Available

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
1.26 g/amp-hr
51
📊

Electron Work Function
4.71 eV
9
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Ruthenium

Atomic Number
44
68
📊

Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d7 5s1

Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
📊

Crystal Lattice
rystal-Structure-of-Ruthenium.jpg#100

Atom of Ruthenium

Number of Protons
44
📊

Number of Neutrons
57
📊

Number of Electrons
44
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
134.00 pm
📊

Covalent Radius
146.00 pm
📊

Van der Waals Radius
200.00 pm
📊

Atomic Weight
101.07 amu
62
📊

Atomic Volume
8.30 cm3/mol
59
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
64.00 (-eV)
22
📊

Lattice Constant
270.59 pm
67
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3

Lattice C/A Ratio
1.58
11
📊

Mechanical Properties of Ruthenium

Density of Ruthenium

Density At Room Temperature
12.45 g/cm3
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
10.65 g/cm3
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available
📊

Viscosity
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure of Ruthenium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
0.00 (Pa)
📊

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
173.00 GPa
📊

Bulk Modulus
220.00 GPa
📊

Young's Modulus
447.00 GPa
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.30
14
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable

Magnetic Properties of Ruthenium

Magnetic Characteristics of Ruthenium

Specific Gravity
12.45
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available
📊

Susceptibility
Not Available
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
71.00 nΩ·m
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.14 106/cm Ω
📊

Electron Affinity
101.30 kJ/mol
📊

Thermal Properties of Ruthenium

Specific Heat
0.24 J/(kg K)
24
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
24.06 J/mol·K
54
📊

Thermal Conductivity
117.00 W/m·K
13
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
6.40 µm/(m·K)
51
📊

Enthalpy of Ruthenium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
567.80 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
25.50 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
603.00 kJ/mol
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
28.50 J/mol.K
54
📊

Ruthenium Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Ruthenium metal is also represented by the symbol Ru. This atomic symbol of Ruthenium is useful in indicating the position of metal Ru in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Ruthenium? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Ru metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Ruthenium

Periodic table of Ruthenium comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Ruthenium metal belongs to Transition Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 8, whereas its period number is 5. It is placed under d block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent d block elements.

Ruthenium Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Ruthenium are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Ruthenium is 44 and its atomic weight is 101.07 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Kr] 4d7 5s1. Nuclear particles in Ruthenium atom are 57 neutrons, 44 protons and 44 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Ruthenium

Physical and chemical characteristics of Ruthenium are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Ruthenium include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Silvery White Solid. It starts melting at 2,250.00 °C. All these Ruthenium metal properties together define what is Ruthenium?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og