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What is Sodium?

Sodium In Periodic Table

Sodium Symbol
Na

Group Number
1
17
📊

Period Number
3
📊

Block
s block
📊

Element Family
Alkali
📊

CAS Number of Sodium
7440235
57

Space Group Name
Im_ 3m

Space Group Number
229.00
1
📊

Facts about Sodium

Interesting Facts
  • At room temperature Sodium metal is very soft as it can be chopped down into pieces with butter knife.
  • The most common compound of Sodium is NaCl (Salt).

Sources
By Electrolysis Process, Mining

History of Sodium

Who Discovered
Humphry Davy

Discovery
In 1807

Abundance of Sodium

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
6
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
7
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.55 %
6
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
2.30 %
5
📊

Abundance In Oceans
1.10 %
1
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.14 %
3
📊

Uses of Sodium

Uses & Benefits
  • In some nuclear reactors sodium is used as a heat exchanger.
  • Compound of Sodium metals called Salt (Sodium chloride) is used in Food.

Industrial Uses
Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Pharmaceutical Industry

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
1,970.00 Blood/mg dm-3
1

In Bone
10,000.00 p.p.m.
2

Physical Properties of Sodium

Sodium Melting Point
97.72 °C
75
📊

Sodium Boiling Point
883.00 °C
71
📊

Appearance of Sodium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silvery White

Luster
Metallic
📊

Hardness of Sodium

Mohs Hardness
0.50
22
📊

Brinell Hardness
0.69 MPa
53
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available

Speed of Sound
3,200.00 m/s
24
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
Not Available

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Sodium

Chemical Formula
Na

Isotopes of Sodium

Known Isotopes
17
22
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
0.93
48
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
0.56
30
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.01
35
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
0.91
21
📊

Allen Electronegativity
0.87
44
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
3.07
6
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
495.80 kJ/mol
85
📊

2nd Energy Level
4,562.00 kJ/mol
4
📊

3rd Energy Level
6,910.30 kJ/mol
6
📊

4th Energy Level
9,543.00 kJ/mol
5
📊

5th Energy Level
13,354.00 kJ/mol
4
📊

6th Energy Level
16,613.00 kJ/mol
4
📊

7th Energy level
20,117.00 kJ/mol
4
📊

8th Energy Level
25,496.00 kJ/mol
4
📊

9th Energy Level
28,932.00 kJ/mol
4
📊

10th Energy Level
141,362.00 kJ/mol
2
📊

11th Energy Level
159,076.00 kJ/mol
2

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
0.86 g/amp-hr
62
📊

Electron Work Function
2.75 eV
40
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Corrosion, Flammability, Ionization, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Sodium

Atomic Number of Sodium
11
90
📊

Sodium Electron Configuration
[Ne] 3s1

Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
BCC-Crystal-Structure-.jpg#100

Atom of Sodium

Number of Protons
11
89
📊

Number of Neutrons
12
67
📊

Number of Electrons
11
89
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
186.00 pm
9
📊

Covalent Radius
166.00 pm
27
📊

Van der Waals Radius
227.00 pm
21
📊

Atomic Weight
22.99 amu
84
📊

Atomic Volume
23.70 cm3/mol
10
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
14.10 (-eV)
61
📊

Lattice Constant
429.06 pm
19
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available

Mechanical Properties of Sodium

Sodium Density

Density At Room Temperature
0.97 g/cm3
82
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
0.93 g/cm3
58
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Sodium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Not Available

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
3.30 GPa
50
📊

Bulk Modulus
6.30 GPa
47
📊

Young's Modulus
10.00 GPa
52
📊

Poisson Ratio
Not Available

Other Mechanical Properties
NA

Magnetic Properties of Sodium

Magnetic Characteristics of Sodium

Specific Gravity
0.97
68
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available

Susceptibility
Not Available

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
47.70 nΩ·m
43
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.21 106/cm Ω
9
📊

Electron Affinity
52.80 kJ/mol
19
📊

Thermal Properties of Sodium

Specific Heat
1.23 J/(kg K)
3
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
28.23 J/mol·K
10
📊

Thermal Conductivity
142.00 W/m·K
11
📊

Critical Temperature
2,573.00 K
2

Thermal Expansion
71.00 µm/(m·K)
4
📊

Enthalpy of Sodium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
89.04 kJ/mol
54
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
2.59 kJ/mol
59
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
108.40 kJ/mol
57
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
51.30 J/mol.K
28
📊