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What is Sodium?

All Metals

Nihonium
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Moscovium
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Tennessine
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Sodium In Periodic Table

Symbol
Na

Group Number
1
17
📊

Period Number
3
📊

Block
s block
📊

Element Family
Alkali
📊

CAS Number
7440235
57

Space Group Name
Im_ 3m

Space Group Number
229.00
1
📊

Facts about Sodium

Interesting Facts
  • At room temperature Sodium metal is very soft as it can be chopped down into pieces with butter knife.
  • The most common compound of Sodium is NaCl (Salt).

Sources
By Electrolysis Process, Mining

History of Sodium

Who Discovered
Humphry Davy

Discovery
In 1807

Abundance of Sodium

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.55 %
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
2.30 %
📊

Abundance In Oceans
1.10 %
📊

Abundance In Humans
0.14 %
📊

Uses of Sodium

Uses & Benefits
  • In some nuclear reactors sodium is used as a heat exchanger.
  • Compound of Sodium metals called Salt (Sodium chloride) is used in Food.

Industrial Uses
Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Pharmaceutical Industry

Other Uses
Alloys

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
1,970.00 Blood/mg dm-3

In Bone
10,000.00 p.p.m.

Physical Properties of Sodium

Melting Point
97.72 °C
75
📊

Boiling Point
883.00 °C
71
📊

Appearance of Sodium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silvery White

Luster
Metallic
📊

Hardness of Sodium

Mohs Hardness
0.50
📊

Brinell Hardness
0.69 MPa
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available
📊

Speed of Sound
3,200.00 m/s
24
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available
📊

Reflectivity
Not Available
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Sodium

Chemical Formula
Na

Isotopes of Sodium

Known Isotopes
17
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
0.93
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
0.56
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.01
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
0.91
📊

Allen Electronegativity
0.87
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
3.07
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
495.80 kJ/mol
📊

2nd Energy Level
4,562.00 kJ/mol
📊

3rd Energy Level
6,910.30 kJ/mol
📊

4th Energy Level
9,543.00 kJ/mol
📊

5th Energy Level
13,354.00 kJ/mol
📊

6th Energy Level
16,613.00 kJ/mol
📊

7th Energy level
20,117.00 kJ/mol
📊

8th Energy Level
25,496.00 kJ/mol
📊

9th Energy Level
28,932.00 kJ/mol
📊

10th Energy Level
141,362.00 kJ/mol
📊

11th Energy Level
159,076.00 kJ/mol

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
0.86 g/amp-hr
62
📊

Electron Work Function
2.75 eV
40
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Corrosion, Flammability, Ionization, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Sodium

Atomic Number
11
90
📊

Electron Configuration
[Ne] 3s1

Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
BCC-Crystal-Structure-.jpg#100

Atom of Sodium

Number of Protons
11
📊

Number of Neutrons
12
📊

Number of Electrons
11
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
186.00 pm
📊

Covalent Radius
166.00 pm
📊

Van der Waals Radius
227.00 pm
📊

Atomic Weight
22.99 amu
84
📊

Atomic Volume
23.70 cm3/mol
10
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
14.10 (-eV)
61
📊

Lattice Constant
429.06 pm
19
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available
📊

Mechanical Properties of Sodium

Density of Sodium

Density At Room Temperature
0.97 g/cm3
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
0.93 g/cm3
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available
📊

Viscosity
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure of Sodium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available
📊

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
3.30 GPa
📊

Bulk Modulus
6.30 GPa
📊

Young's Modulus
10.00 GPa
📊

Poisson Ratio
Not Available
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
NA

Magnetic Properties of Sodium

Magnetic Characteristics of Sodium

Specific Gravity
0.97
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available
📊

Susceptibility
Not Available
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
47.70 nΩ·m
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.21 106/cm Ω
📊

Electron Affinity
52.80 kJ/mol
📊

Thermal Properties of Sodium

Specific Heat
1.23 J/(kg K)
3
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
28.23 J/mol·K
10
📊

Thermal Conductivity
142.00 W/m·K
11
📊

Critical Temperature
2,573.00 K
2

Thermal Expansion
71.00 µm/(m·K)
4
📊

Enthalpy of Sodium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
89.04 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
2.59 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
108.40 kJ/mol
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
51.30 J/mol.K
28
📊

Sodium Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Sodium metal is also represented by the symbol Na. This atomic symbol of Sodium is useful in indicating the position of metal Na in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Sodium? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Na metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Sodium

Periodic table of Sodium comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Sodium metal belongs to Alkali Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 1, whereas its period number is 3. It is placed under s block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent s block elements.

Sodium Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Sodium are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Sodium is 11 and its atomic weight is 22.99 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Ne] 3s1. Nuclear particles in Sodium atom are 12 neutrons, 11 protons and 11 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Sodium

Physical and chemical characteristics of Sodium are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Sodium include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Silvery White Solid. It starts melting at 97.72 °C. All these Sodium metal properties together define what is Sodium?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og