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What is Thorium?

Thorium In Periodic Table

Thorium Symbol
Th

Group Number
0
18
📊

Period Number
7
📊

Block
f block
📊

Element Family
Actinide
📊

CAS Number of Thorium
7440326
49

Space Group Name
P63/mmc

Space Group Number
194.00
5
📊

Facts about Thorium

Interesting Facts
  • Thorium metal is used as an alternate option over Uranium for nuclear fuel.
  • Thorium metals appearance (silvery white, soft) is somewhat similar to Lead metal.

Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining

History of Thorium

Who Discovered
Jöns Jakob Berzelius

Discovery
In 1829

Abundance of Thorium

Abundance In Universe
0.00 %
9
📊

Abundance In Sun
0.00 %
10
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
0.05 %
11
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.66 %
7
📊

Abundance In Oceans
0.00 %
15
📊

Abundance In Humans
Not Available

Uses of Thorium

Uses & Benefits
  • Thorium metal is used as an allying agent for Magnesium, It imparts greater strength and resistance to temperature.
  • compound of this metal Thorium oxide is used as an industrial catalyst.

Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Dentistry, Surgical Instruments Manufacturing

Other Uses
Alloys, Jewellery, Sculptures, Statues

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Non Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
33

In Bone
0.02 p.p.m.
29

Physical Properties of Thorium

Thorium Melting Point
1,750.00 °C
17
📊

Thorium Boiling Point
4,790.00 °C
8
📊

Appearance of Thorium

Physical State
Solid
📊

Color
Silver

Luster
NA

Hardness of Thorium

Mohs Hardness
3.00
12
📊

Brinell Hardness
390.00 MPa
29
📊

Vickers Hardness
295.00 MPa
29
📊

Speed of Sound
2,490.00 m/s
36
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
Not Available

Reflectivity
Not Available

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Thorium

Chemical Formula
Th

Isotopes of Thorium

Known Isotopes
28
11
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
1.30
32
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
Not Available

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.11
29
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Not Available

Allen Electronegativity
Not Available

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
2.70
22
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
587.00 kJ/mol
60
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,110.00 kJ/mol
73
📊

3rd Energy Level
1,978.00 kJ/mol
77
📊

4th Energy Level
2,780.00 kJ/mol
67
📊

5th Energy Level
Not Available

6th Energy Level
Not Available

7th Energy level
Not Available

8th Energy Level
Not Available

9th Energy Level
Not Available

10th Energy Level
Not Available

11th Energy Level
Not Available

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
2.16 g/amp-hr
24
📊

Electron Work Function
3.41 eV
32
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Radioactivity

Atomic Properties of Thorium

Atomic Number of Thorium
90
28
📊

Thorium Electron Configuration
[Rn] 6d2 7s2

Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
📊

Crystal Lattice
FCC-Crystal-Structure-of-Thorium.jpg#100

Atom of Thorium

Number of Protons
90
28
📊

Number of Neutrons
142
16
📊

Number of Electrons
90
28
📊

Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
179.80 pm
15
📊

Covalent Radius
206.00 pm
7
📊

Van der Waals Radius
237.00 pm
15
📊

Atomic Weight
232.04 amu
23
📊

Atomic Volume
19.90 cm3/mol
20
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
59.30 (-eV)
23
📊

Lattice Constant
508.42 pm
14
📊

Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available

Mechanical Properties of Thorium

Thorium Density

Density At Room Temperature
11.72 g/cm3
32
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Not Available

Tensile Strength
Not Available

Viscosity
Not Available

Vapor Pressure of Thorium

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Not Available

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
0.00 (Pa)
22
📊

Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
31.00 GPa
21
📊

Bulk Modulus
54.00 GPa
22
📊

Young's Modulus
79.00 GPa
24
📊

Poisson Ratio
0.27
20
📊

Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile

Magnetic Properties of Thorium

Magnetic Characteristics of Thorium

Specific Gravity
11.70
23
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available

Susceptibility
Not Available

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Superconductor
📊

Resistivity
157.00 nΩ·m
22
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.07 106/cm Ω
31
📊

Electron Affinity
Not Available

Thermal Properties of Thorium

Specific Heat
0.12 J/(kg K)
40
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
26.23 J/mol·K
30
📊

Thermal Conductivity
54.00 W/m·K
28
📊

Critical Temperature
Not Available

Thermal Expansion
11.00 µm/(m·K)
36
📊

Enthalpy of Thorium

Enthalpy of Vaporization
429.00 kJ/mol
15
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
15.48 kJ/mol
19
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
468.60 kJ/mol
15
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
27.30 J/mol.K
56
📊