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Hafnium
Hafnium

Niobium
Niobium



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Hafnium
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Hafnium vs Niobium

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Hf
Nb
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
4
Rank: 14 (Overall)
5
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
d block
d block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Transition Metal
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440586
Rank: 30 (Overall)
7440031
Rank: 76 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
Im_ 3m
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
229.00
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Hafnium metal is highly reactive, hence not found free in nature.
  • Hafnium metal as predicated after Mendeleev finished his periodic table.
  • Niobium metal was used to get called Columbium in past.
  • Niobium metal found freely in nature (abundance).
2.2 Sources
By-product Zirconium Refining
By-product of Tin Extraction, Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy
Charles Hatchett
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1922
In 1801
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
7 * 10-8 %
Rank: 25 (Overall)
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
~0.0000004 %
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 37 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 31 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 27 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • It has an ability to absorb neutrons and hence it is used to make control rods in nuclear submarines. And this metal is also used in Plasma welding torches.
  • It alloys with iron, titanium and niobium are very useful.
  • Niobium alloys are used in jet engines and rockets and spacecraft, beams and girders for buildings and oil and gas pipelines.
  • It is used superconducting magnets in particles accelerators, NMR and MRI equipment.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Ammunition Industry
Aerospace Industry, Ammunition Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys, In Nuclear Reactors, Nuclear Research, Research Purposes
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Toxic
Low Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.01 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.07 p.p.m.
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
2,150.00 °C
Rank: 10 (Overall)
2,468.00 °C
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
5,400.00 °C
Rank: 5 (Overall)
2,468.00 °C
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Gray
Gray
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Metallic
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
5.50
Rank: 7 (Overall)
6.00
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
1,450.00 MPa
Rank: 6 (Overall)
735.00 MPa
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
1,520.00 MPa
Rank: 5 (Overall)
870.00 MPa
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
3,010.00 m/s
Rank: 27 (Overall)
3,480.00 m/s
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Hf
Nb
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
32
Rank: 7 (Overall)
17
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.30
Rank: 32 (Overall)
1.60
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.42
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.23
Rank: 25 (Overall)
1.23
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.16
Rank: 37 (Overall)
1.41
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.70
Rank: 22 (Overall)
2.40
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
658.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
652.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,440.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 44 (Overall)
1,380.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,250.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 60 (Overall)
2,416.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
3,216.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 63 (Overall)
3,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
4,877.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
9,847.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
12,100.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.66 g/amp-hr
Rank: 44 (Overall)
0.69 g/amp-hr
Rank: 66 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
3.90 eV
Rank: 27 (Overall)
4.30 eV
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
72
Rank: 44 (Overall)
41
Rank: 71 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
[Kr] 4d4 5s1
6.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
72
Rank: 43 (Overall)
41
Rank: 70 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
106
Rank: 29 (Overall)
52
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
72
Rank: 43 (Overall)
41
Rank: 70 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
159.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
146.00 pm
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
175.00 pm
Rank: 23 (Overall)
164.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
178.49 amu
Rank: 39 (Overall)
92.91 amu
Rank: 65 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
13.60 cm3/mol
Rank: 38 (Overall)
10.87 cm3/mol
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
81.00 (-eV)
Rank: 16 (Overall)
104.00 (-eV)
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
319.64 pm
Rank: 55 (Overall)
330.04 pm
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, π/2
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
1.58
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
13.31 g/cm3
Rank: 26 (Overall)
8.57 g/cm3
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
12.00 g/cm3
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
445.00 MPa
Rank: 8 (Overall)
330.00 MPa
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 24 (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
30.00 GPa
Rank: 23 (Overall)
38.00 GPa
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
110.00 GPa
Rank: 15 (Overall)
170.00 GPa
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
78.00 GPa
Rank: 25 (Overall)
105.00 GPa
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.37
Rank: 7 (Overall)
0.40
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable
Ductile, Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
13.31
Rank: 18 (Overall)
8.57
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Paramagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
331.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 14 (Overall)
152.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.03 106/cm Ω
Rank: 39 (Overall)
0.07 106/cm Ω
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
0.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
86.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.14 J/(kg K)
Rank: 37 (Overall)
0.26 J/(kg K)
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
25.73 J/mol·K
Rank: 36 (Overall)
24.60 J/mol·K
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
23.00 W/m·K
Rank: 41 (Overall)
53.70 W/m·K
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
5.90 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 54 (Overall)
7.30 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
661.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
696.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
25.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
27.20 kJ/mol
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
703.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
745.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
43.60 J/mol.K
Rank: 34 (Overall)
36.40 J/mol.K
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Beryllium
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