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Ruthenium
Ruthenium

Technetium
Technetium



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Ruthenium
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Ruthenium vs Technetium

1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Ru
Tc
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
8
Rank: 10 (Overall)
7
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
d block
d block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Transition Metal
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440188
Rank: 61 (Overall)
7440268
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
P63/mmc
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Ruthenium element has been extracted from used nuclear fuel.
  • Ruthenium metal also produces as a by-product of the Nickel mining.
  • Original name of Technetium was Masurium.
  • At the time of its discovery it found in sample of Molybdenum.
2.2 Sources
By-product of Nickel Refining, Found in Minerals, Mining
Made by Bombarding Molybdenum with Deuterons
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Karl Ernst Claus
Emilio Segrè and Carlo Perriero
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1844
In 1937
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
4 * 10-7 %
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000005 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
~-9999 %
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • It is used for producing chip resistors and contact.
  • Ruthenium oxide is used to coat the anodes cells for chlorine production in chemical industry. It also works as catalysts for ammonia and acetic acid reaction.
  • Technetium is a radioactive metal and hence it is used for medical studies and other research purposes.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
NA
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Medical Research
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys, Nuclear Research, Research Purposes
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Low Toxic
Low Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
2,250.00 °C
Rank: 8 (Overall)
2,200.00 °C
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
3,900.00 °C
Rank: 14 (Overall)
4,877.00 °C
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery White
Shiny Gray
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
NA
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
6.50
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
2,160.00 MPa
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
5,970.00 m/s
Rank: 4 (Overall)
16,200.00 m/s
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Ru
Tc
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
26
Rank: 13 (Overall)
18
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
2.20
Rank: 4 (Overall)
1.90
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.42
Rank: 18 (Overall)
1.36
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.54
Rank: 25 (Overall)
1.51
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
1.80
Rank: 49 (Overall)
2.10
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
710.20 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
702.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
710.22 kJ/mol
Rank: 83 (Overall)
1,470.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,747.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 37 (Overall)
2,850.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.26 g/amp-hr
Rank: 51 (Overall)
0.52 g/amp-hr
Rank: 68 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
4.71 eV
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Radioactivity, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
44
Rank: 68 (Overall)
43
Rank: 69 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
[Kr] 4d5 5s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
44
Rank: 67 (Overall)
43
Rank: 68 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
57
Rank: 50 (Overall)
55
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
44
Rank: 67 (Overall)
43
Rank: 68 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
134.00 pm
Rank: 43 (Overall)
136.00 pm
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
146.00 pm
Rank: 38 (Overall)
147.00 pm
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
101.07 amu
Rank: 62 (Overall)
98.00 amu
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
8.30 cm3/mol
Rank: 59 (Overall)
8.50 cm3/mol
Rank: 57 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
64.00 (-eV)
Rank: 22 (Overall)
180.00 (-eV)
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
270.59 pm
Rank: 67 (Overall)
273.50 pm
Rank: 65 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
1.58
Rank: 11 (Overall)
1.60
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
12.45 g/cm3
Rank: 27 (Overall)
11.00 g/cm3
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
10.65 g/cm3
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
173.00 GPa
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
220.00 GPa
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
447.00 GPa
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.30
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable
NA
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
12.45
Rank: 19 (Overall)
11.50
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Paramagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
71.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 38 (Overall)
200.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.14 106/cm Ω
Rank: 16 (Overall)
0.07 106/cm Ω
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
101.30 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
53.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.24 J/(kg K)
Rank: 24 (Overall)
0.21 J/(kg K)
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
24.06 J/mol·K
Rank: 54 (Overall)
24.27 J/mol·K
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
117.00 W/m·K
Rank: 13 (Overall)
50.60 W/m·K
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
6.40 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 51 (Overall)
7.10 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
567.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
660.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
25.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
23.01 kJ/mol
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
603.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 9 (Overall)
649.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
28.50 J/mol.K
Rank: 54 (Overall)
181.10 J/mol.K
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Beryllium
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