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Promethium
Promethium

Samarium
Samarium



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Promethium
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Samarium

Promethium vs Samarium

1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Pm
Sm
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
f block
f block
1.5 Element Family
Lanthanide
Lanthanide
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440122
Rank: 67 (Overall)
7440199
Rank: 60 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
Not Available
R_ 3m
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
166.00
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Promethium metal found in Pitchblende.
  • Promethium metal is highly radioactive metal.
  • Samarium metals helps stimulating body metabolism.
  • Samarium metals was 1st observed by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in Dydimia in 1853.
2.2 Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, Hans Bethe
Lecoq de Boisbaudran
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1942
In 1879
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
5 * 10-7 %
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~-9999 %
Rank: N/A (Overall)
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • It is used for research purpose. Very small amount of this metal is used in atomic batteries.
  • Its radioactive decay is used for a phosphor to give off light. The light emitted is converted into electricity.
  • Magnets of Samarium cobalt alloy are stronger than that of Iron and hence, they are used in microwave application.
  • Samarium metal also used in optical lasers and infrared absorbing glasses and as a neutron absorber.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
NA
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
NA
Alloys, In Nuclear Reactors
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Non Toxic
Slightly Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 37 (Overall)
0.01 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
1,042.00 °C
Rank: 43 (Overall)
1,072.00 °C
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
3,000.00 °C
Rank: 31 (Overall)
1,900.00 °C
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Unknown
Silvery White
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Lustrous
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
441.00 MPa
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
412.00 MPa
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
2,130.00 m/s
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Pm
Sm
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
27
Rank: 12 (Overall)
30
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.17
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.07
Rank: 32 (Overall)
1.07
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
2.83
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
540.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 73 (Overall)
544.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 72 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,050.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 78 (Overall)
1,070.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 75 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,150.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 67 (Overall)
2,260.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 59 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
3,970.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 38 (Overall)
3,990.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.80 g/amp-hr
Rank: 36 (Overall)
1.87 g/amp-hr
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
2.70 eV
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
61
Rank: 55 (Overall)
62
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f5 6s2
[Xe] 4f6 6s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Double Hexagonal Close Packed (DHCP)
Rhombohedral (RHO)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
61
Rank: 54 (Overall)
62
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
84
Rank: 40 (Overall)
88
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
61
Rank: 54 (Overall)
62
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
183.00 pm
Rank: 10 (Overall)
180.00 pm
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
199.00 pm
Rank: 12 (Overall)
198.00 pm
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
236.00 pm
Rank: 16 (Overall)
229.00 pm
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
145.00 amu
Rank: 49 (Overall)
150.36 amu
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
22.39 cm3/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
19.95 cm3/mol
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
44.10 (-eV)
Rank: 39 (Overall)
44.80 (-eV)
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
362.10 pm
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
Unknown
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
7.26 g/cm3
Rank: 56 (Overall)
7.52 g/cm3
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
7.16 g/cm3
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.94 (Pa)
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
18.00 GPa
Rank: 36 (Overall)
19.50 GPa
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
33.00 GPa
Rank: 36 (Overall)
37.80 GPa
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
46.00 GPa
Rank: 38 (Overall)
49.70 GPa
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.28
Rank: 17 (Overall)
0.27
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
NA
NA
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
7.26
Rank: 43 (Overall)
7.52
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Paramagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
0.75 nΩ·m
Rank: 64 (Overall)
0.94 nΩ·m
Rank: 61 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.01 106/cm Ω
Rank: 58 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
50.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
50.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.18 J/(kg K)
Rank: 33 (Overall)
0.20 J/(kg K)
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
29.54 J/mol·K
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
17.90 W/m·K
Rank: 47 (Overall)
13.30 W/m·K
Rank: 58 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
9.00 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 43 (Overall)
12.70 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
166.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 44 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
7.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 43 (Overall)
8.62 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
310.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 34 (Overall)
209.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
69.60 J/mol.K
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Beryllium
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