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Protactinium
Protactinium

Thorium
Thorium



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Protactinium
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Protactinium vs Thorium

1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Pa
Th
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Gadolinium
ADD ⊕
1.3 Period Number
Uranium
7
Rank: 1 (Overall)
7
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Lithium
ADD ⊕
2.5 Block
f block
f block
2.6 Element Family
Actinide
Actinide
2.7 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440133
Rank: 66 (Overall)
7440326
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Aluminium
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2.8 Space Group Name
I4/mmm
P63/mmc
2.9 Space Group Number
Sodium
139.00
Rank: 8 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
ADD ⊕
3 Facts
3.1 Interesting Facts
  • Protactinium metal has 29 isotopes.
  • Isotopes of Protactinium-231 used in nuclear weapon.
  • Thorium metal is used as an alternate option over Uranium for nuclear fuel.
  • Thorium metals appearance (silvery white, soft) is somewhat similar to Lead metal.
3.2 Sources
Found in Uranium Ores, Mining, Ores of metals
Found in Minerals, Mining
3.3 History
3.3.1 Who Discovered
William Crookes
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
3.3.2 Discovery
In 1900
In 1829
3.4 Abundance
3.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
3 * 10-4 %
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Thallium
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3.4.3 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~-9999 %
Rank: N/A (Overall)
~0.0004 %
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Beryllium
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3.4.4 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.05 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Gold
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3.4.6 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 57 (Overall)
0.66 %
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Radium
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3.4.8 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 47 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Protactinium
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4.2.1 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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5 Uses
5.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Currently known uses of Protactinium metal are limited to research purpose only.
  • Thorium metal is used as an allying agent for Magnesium, It imparts greater strength and resistance to temperature.
  • compound of this metal Thorium oxide is used as an industrial catalyst.
5.1.1 Industrial Uses
NA
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
5.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
Dentistry, Surgical Instruments Manufacturing
5.1.3 Other Uses
NA
Alloys, Jewellery, Sculptures, Statues
5.2 Biological Properties
5.2.1 Toxicity
Highly Toxic
Non Toxic
5.2.2 Present in Human Body
7% Actinide Series Metals have it !
7% Actinide Series Metals have it !
5.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 37 (Overall)
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Plutonium
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5.2.5 In Bone
Calcium
0.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 36 (Overall)
0.02 p.p.m.
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Plutonium
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7 Physical
7.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
1,568.00 °C
Rank: 21 (Overall)
1,750.00 °C
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Francium
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7.3 Boiling Point
Tungsten
4,027.00 °C
Rank: 12 (Overall)
4,790.00 °C
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Flerovium
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7.5 Appearance
7.5.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
7.5.2 Color
Silver
Silver
7.5.3 Luster
Metallic
NA
7.6 Hardness
7.6.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
3.00
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.8.1 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
390.00 MPa
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.9.2 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
295.00 MPa
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Palladium
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7.10 Speed of Sound
Technetium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
2,490.00 m/s
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Thallium
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7.11 Optical Properties
7.11.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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8.2.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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8.4 Allotropes
No Actinide Series Metals has it !
No Actinide Series Metals has it !
8.4.2 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
8.4.3 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
8.4.4 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
9 Chemical
9.1 Chemical Formula
Pa
Th
9.2 Isotopes
9.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
27
Rank: 12 (Overall)
28
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Tennessine
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9.3 Electronegativity
9.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.50
Rank: 27 (Overall)
1.30
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Francium
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9.3.3 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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9.3.5 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.14
Rank: 28 (Overall)
1.11
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.3.7 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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9.3.9 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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9.5 Electropositivity
9.5.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.50
Rank: 27 (Overall)
2.70
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Gold
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9.6 Ionization Energies
9.6.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
568.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 68 (Overall)
587.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 60 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.7.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,128.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 72 (Overall)
1,110.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 73 (Overall)
Ruthenium
ADD ⊕
9.7.4 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
1,814.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 81 (Overall)
1,978.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 77 (Overall)
Osmium
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9.7.6 4th Energy Level
Chromium
2,991.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 66 (Overall)
2,780.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 67 (Overall)
Thorium
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9.7.8 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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9.7.10 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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9.7.12 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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9.7.13 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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9.7.15 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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9.7.17 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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9.7.19 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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9.7.20 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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9.7.22 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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9.7.24 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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9.7.26 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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9.7.27 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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9.7.29 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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9.7.31 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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9.7.33 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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9.7.34 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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9.7.36 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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9.7.38 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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9.7.40 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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9.7.42 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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9.7.43 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
9.7.45 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
9.7.47 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
9.7.48 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
9.7.50 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
9.7.51 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
9.8 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.72 g/amp-hr
Rank: 43 (Overall)
2.16 g/amp-hr
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Beryllium
ADD ⊕
9.9 Electron Work Function
Platinum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
3.41 eV
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Cesium
ADD ⊕
9.10 Other Chemical Properties
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Radioactivity
Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Radioactivity
10 Atomic
10.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
91
Rank: 27 (Overall)
90
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Lithium
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10.2 Electron Configuration
[Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s2
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
10.3 Crystal Structure
Tetragonal (TETR)
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
10.3.1 Crystal Lattice
10.4 Atom
10.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
91
Rank: 27 (Overall)
90
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Lithium
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10.4.3 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
122
Rank: 21 (Overall)
142
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Lithium
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10.4.5 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
91
Rank: 27 (Overall)
90
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Lithium
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10.5 Radius of an Atom
10.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
163.00 pm
Rank: 25 (Overall)
179.80 pm
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Beryllium
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10.5.3 Covalent Radius
Francium
200.00 pm
Rank: 11 (Overall)
206.00 pm
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Beryllium
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10.6.1 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
243.00 pm
Rank: 11 (Overall)
237.00 pm
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Zinc
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10.8 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
231.04 amu
Rank: 24 (Overall)
232.04 amu
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Lithium
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11.2 Atomic Volume
Cesium
15.00 cm3/mol
Rank: 34 (Overall)
19.90 cm3/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Manganese
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11.3 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
11.3.1 Previous Element
11.3.2 Next Element
11.4 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
92.00 (-eV)
Rank: 11 (Overall)
59.30 (-eV)
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Francium
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11.8 Lattice Constant
Manganese
392.50 pm
Rank: 23 (Overall)
508.42 pm
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Beryllium
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11.9 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
π/2, π/2, π/2
11.10 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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12 Mechanical
12.1 Density
12.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
15.37 g/cm3
Rank: 20 (Overall)
11.72 g/cm3
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Lithium
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12.2.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Lithium
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12.3 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
ADD ⊕
12.4 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
12.5 Vapor Pressure
12.5.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium
ADD ⊕
12.6.1 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Tungsten
ADD ⊕
12.8 Elasticity properties
12.8.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
31.00 GPa
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Potassium
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12.8.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
54.00 GPa
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Cesium
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12.10.1 Young's Modulus
Iridium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
79.00 GPa
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Cesium
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12.12 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.27
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Beryllium
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12.15 Other Mechanical Properties
Unknown
Ductile
13 Magnetic
13.1 Magnetic Characteristics
13.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
15.37
Rank: 12 (Overall)
11.70
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Lithium
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13.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Paramagnetic
13.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
ADD ⊕
14.1.2 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
ADD ⊕
14.2 Electrical Properties
14.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Superconductor
14.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
177.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 21 (Overall)
157.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Thallium
ADD ⊕
14.3.1 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.05 106/cm Ω
Rank: 34 (Overall)
0.07 106/cm Ω
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Plutonium
ADD ⊕
14.4.1 Electron Affinity
Gold
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
ADD ⊕
15 Thermal
15.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.12 J/(kg K)
Rank: 40 (Overall)
0.12 J/(kg K)
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Americium
ADD ⊕
15.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
26.23 J/mol·K
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Beryllium
ADD ⊕
15.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
47.00 W/m·K
Rank: 32 (Overall)
54.00 W/m·K
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Neptunium
ADD ⊕
15.5 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
ADD ⊕
15.6 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
9.90 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 40 (Overall)
11.00 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Tungsten
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15.7 Enthalpy
15.7.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
429.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Zinc
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15.7.3 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
12.34 kJ/mol
Rank: 28 (Overall)
15.48 kJ/mol
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Cesium
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15.8.1 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
468.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Mercury
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16.2 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
198.10 J/mol.K
Rank: 1 (Overall)
27.30 J/mol.K
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Beryllium
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