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Holmium
Holmium

Gadolinium
Gadolinium



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Holmium
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Gadolinium

Holmium vs Gadolinium

1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Ho
Gd
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
f block
f block
1.5 Element Family
Lanthanide
Lanthanide
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440600
Rank: 29 (Overall)
7440542
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
P63/mmc
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Holmium metal is very soft and malleable.
  • Holmium metal is well known for its corrosion resistivity.
  • Gadolinium is not found free in nature, hence it is not a native metal.
  • Gadolinium metal found in minerals like Monazite and Bastnaesite.
2.2 Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
Found in Minerals, Mining
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Marc Delafontaine
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1878
In 1880
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
5 * 10-8 %
Rank: 27 (Overall)
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~-9999 %
Rank: N/A (Overall)
~0.0000002 %
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 43 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 38 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 41 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Holmium metal has an ability to absorb neutrons, so this metal is used in nuclear reactors to keep the chain reactions of elements under control.
  • Alloys of Holmium are used to produce Magnet.
  • Its alloys are also used in making Magnets, electronic components and Data storage devices.
  • Compound of Gadolinium metal are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
NA
Aerospace Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys, Nuclear Research
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Low Toxic
Non Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
1,461.00 °C
Rank: 30 (Overall)
1,311.00 °C
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
2,600.00 °C
Rank: 42 (Overall)
3,233.00 °C
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery White
Silvery White
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Metallic
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
746.00 MPa
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
481.00 MPa
Rank: 23 (Overall)
510.00 MPa
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
2,760.00 m/s
Rank: 30 (Overall)
2,680.00 m/s
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Ho
Gd
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
34
Rank: 5 (Overall)
26
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.23
Rank: 37 (Overall)
1.20
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.10
Rank: 30 (Overall)
1.11
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.77
Rank: 17 (Overall)
2.80
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
581.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 62 (Overall)
593.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,140.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 70 (Overall)
1,170.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 65 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,204.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 63 (Overall)
1,990.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 75 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
4,100.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 34 (Overall)
4,250.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
2.02 g/amp-hr
Rank: 29 (Overall)
1.96 g/amp-hr
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
3.10 eV
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Corrosion, Flammable, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
67
Rank: 49 (Overall)
64
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f11 6s2
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
67
Rank: 48 (Overall)
64
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
98
Rank: 34 (Overall)
93
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
67
Rank: 48 (Overall)
64
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
176.00 pm
Rank: 18 (Overall)
180.00 pm
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
192.00 pm
Rank: 17 (Overall)
196.00 pm
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
216.00 pm
Rank: 24 (Overall)
237.00 pm
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
164.93 amu
Rank: 44 (Overall)
47.87 amu
Rank: 78 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
18.70 cm3/mol
Rank: 24 (Overall)
19.90 cm3/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
47.90 (-eV)
Rank: 31 (Overall)
46.10 (-eV)
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
357.73 pm
Rank: 38 (Overall)
363.60 pm
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
1.57
Rank: 17 (Overall)
1.59
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
8.79 g/cm3
Rank: 46 (Overall)
7.90 g/cm3
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
8.34 g/cm3
Rank: 26 (Overall)
7.40 g/cm3
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 16 (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
7.39 (Pa)
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
26.30 GPa
Rank: 28 (Overall)
21.80 GPa
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
40.20 GPa
Rank: 32 (Overall)
37.90 GPa
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
64.80 GPa
Rank: 31 (Overall)
54.80 GPa
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.23
Rank: 29 (Overall)
0.26
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable, Sectile
Ductile, Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
8.80
Rank: 35 (Overall)
7.90
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Ferromagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
814.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 4 (Overall)
1.31 nΩ·m
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.01 106/cm Ω
Rank: 52 (Overall)
0.01 106/cm Ω
Rank: 62 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
50.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
50.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Mercury
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2 Thermal
2.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.16 J/(kg K)
Rank: 35 (Overall)
0.23 J/(kg K)
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Americium
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2.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
27.15 J/mol·K
Rank: 19 (Overall)
37.03 J/mol·K
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
16.20 W/m·K
Rank: 52 (Overall)
10.60 W/m·K
Rank: 64 (Overall)
Neptunium
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2.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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2.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
11.20 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 35 (Overall)
9.40 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Tungsten
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2.6 Enthalpy
2.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
241.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 38 (Overall)
359.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Zinc
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2.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
11.76 kJ/mol
Rank: 29 (Overall)
10.05 kJ/mol
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Cesium
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2.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
301.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 36 (Overall)
352.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Mercury
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2.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
75.30 J/mol.K
Rank: 8 (Overall)
68.10 J/mol.K
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Beryllium
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