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Niobium
Niobium

Yttrium
Yttrium



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Niobium
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Yttrium

Niobium vs Yttrium

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Nb
Y
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
5
Rank: 13 (Overall)
3
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
d block
d block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Transition Metal
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440031
Rank: 76 (Overall)
7440655
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
Im_ 3m
P63/mmc
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
229.00
Rank: 1 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Niobium metal was used to get called Columbium in past.
  • Niobium metal found freely in nature (abundance).
  • Yttrium Metal is highly toxic.
  • Yttrium Metal is highly reactive in nature hence not found free in nature.
2.2 Sources
By-product of Tin Extraction, Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Charles Hatchett
Johan Gadolin
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1801
In 1794
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
7 * 10-7 %
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000004 %
Rank: 23 (Overall)
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 35 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 25 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 34 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Niobium alloys are used in jet engines and rockets and spacecraft, beams and girders for buildings and oil and gas pipelines.
  • It is used superconducting magnets in particles accelerators, NMR and MRI equipment.
  • Yttrium metal is used in different alloys, as it increases the strength of aluminum Magnesium alloy. It is used for radar microwave filter.
  • It is also used as a catalyst in ethene polymerisation.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Ammunition Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Low Toxic
Highly Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.01 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 25 (Overall)
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
0.07 p.p.m.
Rank: 25 (Overall)
0.07 p.p.m.
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
2,468.00 °C
Rank: 6 (Overall)
1,523.00 °C
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
2,468.00 °C
Rank: 45 (Overall)
3,337.00 °C
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Gray
Silvery White
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
NA
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
6.00
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
735.00 MPa
Rank: 14 (Overall)
589.00 MPa
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
870.00 MPa
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
3,480.00 m/s
Rank: 21 (Overall)
3,300.00 m/s
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Nb
Y
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
17
Rank: 22 (Overall)
19
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.60
Rank: 23 (Overall)
1.22
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
1.42
Rank: 16 (Overall)
0.65
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.23
Rank: 25 (Overall)
1.11
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.41
Rank: 31 (Overall)
1.12
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.40
Rank: 31 (Overall)
2.78
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
652.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 41 (Overall)
600.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,380.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 50 (Overall)
1,180.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,416.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 50 (Overall)
1,980.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 76 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
3,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 49 (Overall)
5,847.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
4,877.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 36 (Overall)
7,430.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
9,847.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
8,970.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
12,100.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
11,190.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
12,450.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
14,110.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
18,400.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
19,900.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
36,090.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
0.69 g/amp-hr
Rank: 66 (Overall)
1.11 g/amp-hr
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
4.30 eV
Rank: 18 (Overall)
3.10 eV
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Chemical Stability, Flammable, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
41
Rank: 71 (Overall)
39
Rank: 73 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d4 5s1
[Kr] 4d1 5s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
41
Rank: 70 (Overall)
39
Rank: 72 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
52
Rank: 53 (Overall)
50
Rank: 55 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
41
Rank: 70 (Overall)
39
Rank: 72 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
146.00 pm
Rank: 35 (Overall)
180.00 pm
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
164.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
190.00 pm
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
92.91 amu
Rank: 65 (Overall)
88.91 amu
Rank: 67 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
10.87 cm3/mol
Rank: 45 (Overall)
19.80 cm3/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
104.00 (-eV)
Rank: 8 (Overall)
48.00 (-eV)
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
330.04 pm
Rank: 51 (Overall)
364.74 pm
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.57
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
8.57 g/cm3
Rank: 48 (Overall)
4.47 g/cm3
Rank: 71 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
4.24 g/cm3
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
330.00 MPa
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 27 (Overall)
4.27 (Pa)
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
38.00 GPa
Rank: 19 (Overall)
25.60 GPa
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
170.00 GPa
Rank: 10 (Overall)
41.20 GPa
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
105.00 GPa
Rank: 20 (Overall)
63.50 GPa
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.40
Rank: 4 (Overall)
0.24
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable
Ductile
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
8.57
Rank: 37 (Overall)
4.47
Rank: 59 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Paramagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
152.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 23 (Overall)
596.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.07 106/cm Ω
Rank: 28 (Overall)
0.02 106/cm Ω
Rank: 47 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
86.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
29.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.26 J/(kg K)
Rank: 20 (Overall)
0.30 J/(kg K)
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
24.60 J/mol·K
Rank: 50 (Overall)
26.53 J/mol·K
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
53.70 W/m·K
Rank: 29 (Overall)
17.20 W/m·K
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
7.30 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 48 (Overall)
10.60 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
696.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
393.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
27.20 kJ/mol
Rank: 6 (Overall)
17.15 kJ/mol
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
745.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
418.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
36.40 J/mol.K
Rank: 42 (Overall)
44.40 J/mol.K
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Beryllium
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