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Ruthenium
Ruthenium

Gold
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Ruthenium
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Ruthenium Gold Comparison

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Ru
Au
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine Metal
8
Rank: 10 (Overall)
11
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Gadolinium Metal
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium Metal
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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1.4 Block
d block
d block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Transition Metal
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium Met..
7440188
Rank: 61 (Overall)
7440575
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Aluminium Metal
1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
Fm_ 3m
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium Metal
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
225.00
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Plutonium Metal
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Ruthenium element has been extracted from used nuclear fuel.
  • Ruthenium metal also produces as a by-product of the Nickel mining.
  • It is found in copper ores and from the crust of the earth.
  • It is the most malleable and ductile metal.
  • Gold alloys are used in Dentistry as fillings, crowning, clips, etc. It is also used as an artificial limb joints.
2.2 Sources
By-product of Nickel Refining, Found in Minerals, Mining
Earth's crust, Mining, Ores of metals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Karl Ernst Claus
Unknown
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1844
Before 6000 BCE
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron Metal
4 * 10-7 %
Rank: 20 (Overall)
6 * 10-8 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Thallium Metal
2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron Metal
~0.0000005 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron Metal
0.00 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Gold Metal
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium Metal
0.00 %
Rank: 54 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Radium Metal
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium Metal
0.00 %
Rank: 38 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Protactinium Metal
2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Radium Metal
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • It is used for producing chip resistors and contact.
  • Ruthenium oxide is used to coat the anodes cells for chlorine production in chemical industry. It also works as catalysts for ammonia and acetic acid reaction.
  • Gold metal is mainly used for Jewelry, bullion, coinage, etc.
  • It is used in the art, decoration, ornaments, etc. It is also used for electroplating process.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
Chemical Industry, Clothing Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Medical Research
Dentistry, Pharmaceutical Industry
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys, Bullion, Coinage, Jewellery, Sculptures, Statues
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Low Toxic
Non Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Plutonium Metal
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.02 p.p.m.
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Plutonium Metal
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten Metal
2,250.00 °C
Rank: 8 (Overall)
1,064.43 °C
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Francium Metal
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten Metal
3,900.00 °C
Rank: 14 (Overall)
2,807.00 °C
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Flerovium Metal
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery White
Gold
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Metallic
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium Metal
6.50
Rank: 5 (Overall)
2.50
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium Metal
2,160.00 MPa
Rank: 3 (Overall)
194.00 MPa
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
216.00 MPa
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Palladium Metal
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium Metal
5,970.00 m/s
Rank: 4 (Overall)
2,030.00 m/s
Rank: 44 (Overall)
Thallium Metal
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury Metal
4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
95.00 %
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Ru
Au
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium Metal
26
Rank: 13 (Overall)
36
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Tennessine Metal
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold Metal
2.20
Rank: 4 (Overall)
2.54
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Francium Metal
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium Metal
1.42
Rank: 18 (Overall)
1.42
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.87
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium Metal
1.54
Rank: 25 (Overall)
1.92
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium Metal
1.80
Rank: 49 (Overall)
1.46
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Gold Metal
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium Metal
710.20 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
890.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium Metal
710.22 kJ/mol
Rank: 83 (Overall)
1,980.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Ruthenium Metal
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium Metal
2,747.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Osmium Metal
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thorium Metal
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium Metal
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium Metal
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium Metal
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium Metal
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium Metal
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium Metal
5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium Metal
5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese Metal
5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron Metal
5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt Metal
5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel Metal
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper Metal
5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium Metal
1.26 g/amp-hr
Rank: 51 (Overall)
2.45 g/amp-hr
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum Metal
4.71 eV
Rank: 9 (Overall)
5.10 eV
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Chemical Stability, Ionization, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine Metal
44
Rank: 68 (Overall)
79
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
6.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine Metal
44
Rank: 67 (Overall)
79
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium Metal
57
Rank: 50 (Overall)
118
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine Metal
44
Rank: 67 (Overall)
79
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium Metal
134.00 pm
Rank: 43 (Overall)
151.00 pm
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium Metal
146.00 pm
Rank: 38 (Overall)
144.00 pm
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium Metal
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
166.00 pm
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Zinc Metal
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine Metal
101.07 amu
Rank: 62 (Overall)
196.97 amu
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium Metal
8.30 cm3/mol
Rank: 59 (Overall)
10.20 cm3/mol
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Manganese Metal
6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum Metal
64.00 (-eV)
Rank: 22 (Overall)
43.40 (-eV)
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Francium Metal
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese Metal
270.59 pm
Rank: 67 (Overall)
407.82 pm
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, π/2
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium Metal
1.58
Rank: 11 (Overall)
1.61
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium Metal
12.45 g/cm3
Rank: 27 (Overall)
19.30 g/cm3
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium Metal
10.65 g/cm3
Rank: 16 (Overall)
17.31 g/cm3
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
120.00 MPa
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Indium Metal
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury Metal
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Cerium Metal
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium Metal
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 23 (Overall)
67.00 (Pa)
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Tungsten Metal
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium Metal
173.00 GPa
Rank: 4 (Overall)
27.00 GPa
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Potassium Metal
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium Metal
220.00 GPa
Rank: 7 (Overall)
180.00 GPa
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium Metal
447.00 GPa
Rank: 3 (Overall)
79.00 GPa
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium Metal
0.30
Rank: 14 (Overall)
0.40
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable
Ductile, Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt Metal
12.45
Rank: 19 (Overall)
19.32
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Diamagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth Metal
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth Metal
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury Metal
71.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 38 (Overall)
2.20 nΩ·m
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Thallium Metal
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver Metal
0.14 106/cm Ω
Rank: 16 (Overall)
0.45 106/cm Ω
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Plutonium Metal
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold Metal
101.30 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
222.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Mercury Metal
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium Metal
0.24 J/(kg K)
Rank: 24 (Overall)
0.13 J/(kg K)
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Americium Metal
9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium Metal
24.06 J/mol·K
Rank: 54 (Overall)
25.42 J/mol·K
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver Metal
117.00 W/m·K
Rank: 13 (Overall)
318.00 W/m·K
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Neptunium Metal
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium Metal
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium Metal
6.40 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 51 (Overall)
14.20 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Tungsten Metal
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten Metal
567.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
324.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Zinc Metal
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten Metal
25.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
12.55 kJ/mol
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten Metal
603.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 9 (Overall)
364.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Mercury Metal
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium Me..
28.50 J/mol.K
Rank: 54 (Overall)
47.40 J/mol.K
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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