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Samarium
Samarium

Erbium
Erbium



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Samarium
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Erbium

Samarium vs Erbium

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Sm
Er
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
f block
f block
1.5 Element Family
Lanthanide
Lanthanide
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440199
Rank: 60 (Overall)
7440520
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
R_ 3m
P63/mmc
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
166.00
Rank: 6 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Samarium metals helps stimulating body metabolism.
  • Samarium metals was 1st observed by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in Dydimia in 1853.
  • Erbium metal is used as alloyed with Vanadium to make it softer.
  • Recent studies shows that it is helpful for metabolism.
2.2 Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
Mining
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Carl Gustaf Mosander
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1879
In 1842
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
5 * 10-7 %
Rank: 19 (Overall)
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 37 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 29 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 40 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Magnets of Samarium cobalt alloy are stronger than that of Iron and hence, they are used in microwave application.
  • Samarium metal also used in optical lasers and infrared absorbing glasses and as a neutron absorber.
  • It has a tendency to get tarnished in the open air, but when alloyed with elements like erbium, vanadium, its hardness levels decreases.
  • Its compounds like Erbium oxide is used in safety glasses of welders and metal workers.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
Chemical Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys, In Nuclear Reactors
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Slightly Toxic
Mildly Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.01 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
1,072.00 °C
Rank: 41 (Overall)
1,522.00 °C
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
1,900.00 °C
Rank: 52 (Overall)
2,510.00 °C
Rank: 44 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery White
Silvery White
4.3.3 Luster
Lustrous
Lustrous
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
441.00 MPa
Rank: 27 (Overall)
814.00 MPa
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
412.00 MPa
Rank: 24 (Overall)
589.00 MPa
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
2,130.00 m/s
Rank: 42 (Overall)
2,830.00 m/s
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Sm
Er
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
30
Rank: 9 (Overall)
31
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.17
Rank: 40 (Overall)
1.24
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.07
Rank: 32 (Overall)
1.11
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.83
Rank: 14 (Overall)
2.76
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
544.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 72 (Overall)
589.30 kJ/mol
Rank: 59 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,070.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 75 (Overall)
1,150.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 68 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,260.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 59 (Overall)
2,194.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 65 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
3,990.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 37 (Overall)
4,120.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.87 g/amp-hr
Rank: 34 (Overall)
2.08 g/amp-hr
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
2.70 eV
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
62
Rank: 54 (Overall)
68
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f6 6s2
[Xe] 4f12 6s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Rhombohedral (RHO)
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
62
Rank: 53 (Overall)
68
Rank: 47 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
88
Rank: 39 (Overall)
99
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
62
Rank: 53 (Overall)
68
Rank: 47 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
180.00 pm
Rank: 14 (Overall)
176.00 pm
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
198.00 pm
Rank: 13 (Overall)
189.00 pm
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
229.00 pm
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
150.36 amu
Rank: 48 (Overall)
167.26 amu
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
19.95 cm3/mol
Rank: 19 (Overall)
18.40 cm3/mol
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
44.80 (-eV)
Rank: 37 (Overall)
49.00 (-eV)
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
362.10 pm
Rank: 33 (Overall)
355.88 pm
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.57
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
7.52 g/cm3
Rank: 53 (Overall)
9.07 g/cm3
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
7.16 g/cm3
Rank: 32 (Overall)
8.86 g/cm3
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
0.94 (Pa)
Rank: 9 (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
19.50 GPa
Rank: 34 (Overall)
28.30 GPa
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
37.80 GPa
Rank: 35 (Overall)
44.40 GPa
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
49.70 GPa
Rank: 37 (Overall)
69.90 GPa
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.27
Rank: 19 (Overall)
0.24
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
NA
Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
7.52
Rank: 41 (Overall)
9.07
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Paramagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
0.94 nΩ·m
Rank: 61 (Overall)
0.86 nΩ·m
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.01 106/cm Ω
Rank: 58 (Overall)
0.01 106/cm Ω
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
50.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
50.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.20 J/(kg K)
Rank: 31 (Overall)
0.17 J/(kg K)
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
29.54 J/mol·K
Rank: 7 (Overall)
28.12 J/mol·K
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
13.30 W/m·K
Rank: 58 (Overall)
14.50 W/m·K
Rank: 55 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
12.70 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 30 (Overall)
12.20 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
166.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 44 (Overall)
261.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
8.62 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
17.20 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
209.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 43 (Overall)
314.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
69.60 J/mol.K
Rank: 15 (Overall)
73.10 J/mol.K
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Beryllium
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