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Cerium
Cerium

Ytterbium
Ytterbium



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Cerium vs Ytterbium

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Ce
Yb
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
f block
f block
1.5 Element Family
Lanthanide
Lanthanide
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440451
Rank: 41 (Overall)
7440644
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
Fm_ 3m
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
225.00
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Cerium is a rare earth metal but still it is not rare at all.
  • It’s non-toxic compound Cerium sulfide has a rich red color and it is used as a pigment.
  • Cerium metal is also used in Flat screen TVs, light bulb, floodlights, etc.
  • Ytterbium metal oxidizes rapidly if exposed to air.
  • Ytterbium metal can dissolve quickly in Mineral acid.
2.2 Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1803
In 1878
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
1 * 10-6 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000004 %
Rank: 23 (Overall)
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 27 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.01 %
Rank: 18 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 33 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • It is used to include flints for cigarette lighters.
  • Its compound Cerium (Ill) Oxide is used as a catalyst; it is put inside the walls of the oven as it prevents from the buildup of cooking residues.
  • Ytterbium metal is used in memory devices and tuneable laser.
  • It is also used as industrial catalyst as the other catalysts are too toxic and polluting.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry
Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Medical Research
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Moderately Toxic
Highly Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
2.70 p.p.m.
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
795.00 °C
Rank: 56 (Overall)
824.00 °C
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
3,257.00 °C
Rank: 23 (Overall)
1,196.00 °C
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery White
Silvery White
4.3.3 Luster
Lustrous
Metallic
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
2.50
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
186.00 MPa
Rank: 43 (Overall)
343.00 MPa
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
210.00 MPa
Rank: 32 (Overall)
206.00 MPa
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
2,100.00 m/s
Rank: 43 (Overall)
1,590.00 m/s
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Ce
Yb
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
30
Rank: 9 (Overall)
30
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.12
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.08
Rank: 31 (Overall)
1.06
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.88
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
534.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 76 (Overall)
603.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,050.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 78 (Overall)
1,174.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 64 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
1,949.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 78 (Overall)
2,417.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
3,547.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 55 (Overall)
4,203.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
6,325.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
7,490.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.74 g/amp-hr
Rank: 41 (Overall)
2.15 g/amp-hr
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
2.84 eV
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
58
Rank: 58 (Overall)
70
Rank: 46 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
[Xe] 4f14 6s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Double Hexagonal Close Packed (DHCP)
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
58
Rank: 57 (Overall)
70
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
82
Rank: 41 (Overall)
103
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
58
Rank: 57 (Overall)
70
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
181.80 pm
Rank: 12 (Overall)
176.00 pm
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
204.00 pm
Rank: 8 (Overall)
187.00 pm
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
235.00 pm
Rank: 17 (Overall)
242.00 pm
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
140.12 amu
Rank: 52 (Overall)
173.05 amu
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
20.67 cm3/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
24.79 cm3/mol
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
41.78 (-eV)
Rank: 45 (Overall)
50.30 (-eV)
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
362.00 pm
Rank: 34 (Overall)
548.47 pm
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, π/2
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
6.77 g/cm3
Rank: 63 (Overall)
6.90 g/cm3
Rank: 62 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
6.55 g/cm3
Rank: 38 (Overall)
6.21 g/cm3
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
58.00 MPa
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
1.04 (Pa)
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
13.50 GPa
Rank: 41 (Overall)
9.90 GPa
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
21.50 GPa
Rank: 42 (Overall)
30.50 GPa
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
33.60 GPa
Rank: 43 (Overall)
23.90 GPa
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.24
Rank: 27 (Overall)
0.21
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable
Ductile, Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
6.77
Rank: 50 (Overall)
6.97
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Paramagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
828.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 3 (Overall)
0.25 nΩ·m
Rank: 69 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.01 106/cm Ω
Rank: 54 (Overall)
0.04 106/cm Ω
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
50.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
50.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.19 J/(kg K)
Rank: 32 (Overall)
0.15 J/(kg K)
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
26.94 J/mol·K
Rank: 23 (Overall)
26.74 J/mol·K
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
11.30 W/m·K
Rank: 61 (Overall)
38.50 W/m·K
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
26.30 K
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
6.30 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 52 (Overall)
26.30 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
414.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 16 (Overall)
128.90 kJ/mol
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
5.46 kJ/mol
Rank: 52 (Overall)
7.66 kJ/mol
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
381.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 23 (Overall)
180.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 47 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
72.00 J/mol.K
Rank: 12 (Overall)
59.90 J/mol.K
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Beryllium
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