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Cobalt
Cobalt

Nickel
Nickel



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Cobalt
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Cobalt vs Nickel

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Co
Ni
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
9
Rank: 9 (Overall)
10
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
4
Rank: 4 (Overall)
4
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
d block
d block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Transition Metal
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440484
Rank: 38 (Overall)
7440020
Rank: 77 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
Fm_ 3m
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
225.00
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • The main source of Cobalt is as a by-product of copper and nickel metal mining.
  • Cobalt metal can be obtained from other elements like Oxygen, Sulfur and Arsenic.
  • It s also used in electroplating process as it exhibits anti cession properties.
  • Zinc metal found (obtain) in many forms like granules, foil, dust and in a powder form.
  • After iron, Zinc metal the second most abundant element in the earth crust.
2.2 Sources
Found in Compounds, Mining, Ores of Minerals
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Georg Brandt
Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1732
In 1751
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
3 * 10-4 %
Rank: 9 (Overall)
6 * 10-3 %
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0004 %
Rank: 9 (Overall)
~0.008 %
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.06 %
Rank: 10 (Overall)
1.30 %
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 21 (Overall)
0.01 %
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 20 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
0.00 %
Rank: 17 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Its alloys with aluminum and nickel are used to make powerful magnets.
  • Few other alloys exhibit high-temperature strength and hence they are used in Turbines of Jet and Gas engine.
  • It has corrosion resistance and hence it is used to plate other metals.
  • Its alloys are very useful; Nichrome alloy is used in the hot coil of toasters and electric oven.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
Automobile Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Pharmaceutical Industry
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Toxic
Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.04 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 18 (Overall)
0.05 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
0.04 p.p.m.
Rank: 27 (Overall)
0.70 p.p.m.
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
1,495.00 °C
Rank: 29 (Overall)
1,453.00 °C
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
2,870.00 °C
Rank: 34 (Overall)
2,732.00 °C
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Gray
Silver
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Metallic
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
5.00
Rank: 8 (Overall)
4.00
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
470.00 MPa
Rank: 26 (Overall)
667.00 MPa
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
1,043.00 MPa
Rank: 11 (Overall)
638.00 MPa
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
4,720.00 m/s
Rank: 14 (Overall)
4,900.00 m/s
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
67.00 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
72.00 %
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
1.0.1 α Allotropes
α-Cobalt
Not Available
1.1.1 β Allotropes
β-Cobalt
Not Available
1.1.2 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
2 Chemical
2.1 Chemical Formula
Co
Ni
2.2 Isotopes
2.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
26
Rank: 13 (Overall)
25
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Tennessine
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2.3 Electronegativity
2.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.88
Rank: 12 (Overall)
1.91
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Francium
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2.4.1 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
2.56
Rank: 1 (Overall)
1.94
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Cesium
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2.6.2 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.70
Rank: 5 (Overall)
1.75
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Cesium
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2.6.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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2.6.6 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.84
Rank: 10 (Overall)
1.88
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Cesium
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2.7 Electropositivity
2.7.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.12
Rank: 41 (Overall)
2.09
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Gold
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2.9 Ionization Energies
2.9.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
760.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 19 (Overall)
737.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Cesium
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2.10.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,648.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 31 (Overall)
1,753.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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2.10.4 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
3,232.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 22 (Overall)
3,395.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Osmium
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2.11.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
4,950.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 19 (Overall)
5,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Thorium
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2.11.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
7,670.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
7,339.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Dubnium
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2.11.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
9,840.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
10,400.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Seaborgium
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2.11.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
12,440.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
12,800.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Bohrium
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2.11.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
15,230.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
15,600.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Hassium
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2.11.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
17,959.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 13 (Overall)
18,600.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Yttrium
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2.11.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
26,570.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
21,670.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Strontium
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2.11.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
29,400.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
30,970.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Yttrium
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2.11.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
32,400.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
34,000.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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2.11.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
36,600.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
37,100.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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2.11.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
39,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 9 (Overall)
41,500.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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2.11.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
42,800.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
44,800.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Manganese
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2.11.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
49,396.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
48,100.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Iron
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2.11.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
52,737.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 13 (Overall)
55,101.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Cobalt
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2.11.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
134,810.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
58,570.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Nickel
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2.11.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
145,170.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 2 (Overall)
148,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Copper
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2.11.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
154,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
159,000.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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2.11.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
167,400.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
169,400.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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2.11.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
178,100.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
182,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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2.11.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
189,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
194,000.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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2.11.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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2.11.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Molybdenum
2.11.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Molybdenum
2.11.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Molybdenum
2.11.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Molybdenum
2.11.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
2.11.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
2.12 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.10 g/amp-hr
Rank: 57 (Overall)
1.10 g/amp-hr
Rank: 58 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.13 Electron Work Function
Platinum
5.00 eV
Rank: 5 (Overall)
5.15 eV
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Cesium
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2.14 Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Ionization
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes
3 Atomic
3.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
22
Rank: 84 (Overall)
28
Rank: 79 (Overall)
Lithium
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3.2 Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d2 4s2
[Ar] 3d8 4s2 Or [Ar] 3d9 4s1
3.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
3.3.1 Crystal Lattice
3.4 Atom
3.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
22
Rank: 83 (Overall)
28
Rank: 78 (Overall)
Lithium
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3.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
26
Rank: 62 (Overall)
31
Rank: 59 (Overall)
Lithium
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3.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
22
Rank: 83 (Overall)
28
Rank: 78 (Overall)
Lithium
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3.5 Radius of an Atom
3.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
147.00 pm
Rank: 34 (Overall)
124.00 pm
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Beryllium
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3.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
160.00 pm
Rank: 30 (Overall)
124.00 pm
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Beryllium
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3.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
163.00 pm
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Zinc
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3.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
47.87 amu
Rank: 78 (Overall)
58.69 amu
Rank: 73 (Overall)
Lithium
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3.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
10.64 cm3/mol
Rank: 46 (Overall)
6.59 cm3/mol
Rank: 62 (Overall)
Manganese
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3.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
3.8.1 Previous Element
3.8.2 Next Element
3.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
95.20 (-eV)
Rank: 10 (Overall)
42.00 (-eV)
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Francium
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3.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
295.08 pm
Rank: 61 (Overall)
352.40 pm
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Beryllium
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3.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, π/2
3.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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4 Mechanical
4.1 Density
4.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
4.51 g/cm3
Rank: 70 (Overall)
8.91 g/cm3
Rank: 44 (Overall)
Lithium
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4.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
4.11 g/cm3
Rank: 49 (Overall)
7.81 g/cm3
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Lithium
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4.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
434.00 MPa
Rank: 9 (Overall)
345.00 MPa
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Indium
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1.2 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
1.3 Vapor Pressure
1.3.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Cerium
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1.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
0.98 (Pa)
Rank: 14 (Overall)
19.50 (Pa)
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Tungsten
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1.6 Elasticity properties
1.6.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
44.00 GPa
Rank: 17 (Overall)
76.00 GPa
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Potassium
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1.7.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
110.00 GPa
Rank: 15 (Overall)
180.00 GPa
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Cesium
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1.7.4 Young's Modulus
Iridium
116.00 GPa
Rank: 18 (Overall)
200.00 GPa
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Cesium
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1.8 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.32
Rank: 12 (Overall)
0.31
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Beryllium
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1.10 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile
Ductile
2 Magnetic
2.1 Magnetic Characteristics
2.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
4,500.00
Rank: 1 (Overall)
8.90
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Lithium
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2.1.3 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Ferromagnetic
2.1.4 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 H/m
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Bismuth
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2.1.6 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
600.00
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Bismuth
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2.3 Electrical Properties
2.3.1 Electrical Property
Poor Conductor
Conductor
2.3.2 Resistivity
Mercury
420.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 12 (Overall)
69.30 nΩ·m
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.1 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.02 106/cm Ω
Rank: 42 (Overall)
0.14 106/cm Ω
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2.4.2 Electron Affinity
Gold
7.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 37 (Overall)
112.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Mercury
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3 Thermal
3.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.52 J/(kg K)
Rank: 9 (Overall)
0.44 J/(kg K)
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Americium
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3.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
25.06 J/mol·K
Rank: 44 (Overall)
26.07 J/mol·K
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Beryllium
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3.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
21.90 W/m·K
Rank: 43 (Overall)
90.90 W/m·K
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Neptunium
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3.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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3.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
8.60 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 45 (Overall)
13.40 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Tungsten
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3.6 Enthalpy
3.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
429.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
371.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Zinc
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3.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
15.48 kJ/mol
Rank: 19 (Overall)
17.57 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Cesium
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3.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
468.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
422.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Mercury
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3.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
27.30 J/mol.K
Rank: 56 (Overall)
29.90 J/mol.K
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Beryllium
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