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Gallium
Gallium

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Lead



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Gallium vs Lead

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Ga
Pb
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
13
Rank: 5 (Overall)
14
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
4
Rank: 4 (Overall)
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
p block
p block
1.5 Element Family
Post-​Transition
Post-​Transition
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440553
Rank: 32 (Overall)
7439921
Rank: 86 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
Cmca
Fm_ 3m
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
64.00
Rank: 9 (Overall)
225.00
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • A gram of Gallium metal can be bought for only three dollars.
  • Gallium metal found in ores of following things Coal, Bauxite, Diaspore, Sphalerite, Germanite and Zinc.
  • Galena mineral contains almost 87% of Lead metal in it, Galena is sulfide mineral.
  • The best available source of Lead metal today is by recycling automobile batteries.
2.2 Sources
Earth's crust, Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
Earth's crust, Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of metals, Ores of Minerals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Unknown
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1875
In Middle Easterns (7000 BCE)
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
1 * 10-6 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
1 * 10-6 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.000004 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
~0.000001 %
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 24 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Gallium arsenide is a very important component of many semiconductors and led manufacturing.
  • Gallium nitride is also know as a semiconductor and it is used in Blu-ray technology, mobile smartphones and LED.
  • It is also used in insecticides, hair dyes and as an anti-knocking additive for petrol. But all these are banned by the government as Lead metal is known for detrimental to health.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Surgical Instruments Manufacturing
Surgical Instruments Manufacturing
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Non Toxic
Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
70% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
70% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.08 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 13 (Overall)
0.21 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
30.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
29.78 °C
Rank: 79 (Overall)
327.50 °C
Rank: 67 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
2,403.00 °C
Rank: 47 (Overall)
1,740.00 °C
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery White
Gray
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Metallic
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
1.50
Rank: 18 (Overall)
1.50
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
56.80 MPa
Rank: 47 (Overall)
38.00 MPa
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
2,740.00 m/s
Rank: 31 (Overall)
1,190.00 m/s
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
20% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
20% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Ga
Pb
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
24
Rank: 15 (Overall)
35
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.81
Rank: 15 (Overall)
1.87
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
2.42
Rank: 2 (Overall)
2.29
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.82
Rank: 1 (Overall)
1.55
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
2.01
Rank: 5 (Overall)
2.41
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.76
Rank: 14 (Overall)
1.85
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.19
Rank: 39 (Overall)
1.67
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
578.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 64 (Overall)
715.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,979.30 kJ/mol
Rank: 13 (Overall)
1,450.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,963.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 28 (Overall)
3,081.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
6,180.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
4,083.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
6,640.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
0.87 g/amp-hr
Rank: 61 (Overall)
3.87 g/amp-hr
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
4.20 eV
Rank: 23 (Overall)
4.25 eV
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
31
Rank: 76 (Overall)
82
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Orthorhombic (ORTH)
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
31
Rank: 75 (Overall)
82
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
39
Rank: 57 (Overall)
125
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
31
Rank: 75 (Overall)
82
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
135.00 pm
Rank: 42 (Overall)
175.00 pm
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
122.00 pm
Rank: 52 (Overall)
146.00 pm
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
187.00 pm
Rank: 32 (Overall)
202.00 pm
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
69.72 amu
Rank: 70 (Overall)
207.20 amu
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
11.80 cm3/mol
Rank: 42 (Overall)
18.17 cm3/mol
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
69.70 (-eV)
Rank: 19 (Overall)
24.20 (-eV)
Rank: 57 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
451.97 pm
Rank: 18 (Overall)
495.08 pm
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
π/2, π/2, π/2
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
5.91 g/cm3
Rank: 67 (Overall)
11.34 g/cm3
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
6.10 g/cm3
Rank: 42 (Overall)
10.66 g/cm3
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
12.00 MPa
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 15 (Overall)
1.64 (Pa)
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
5.60 GPa
Rank: 47 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
46.00 GPa
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
9.80 GPa
Rank: 53 (Overall)
16.00 GPa
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.47
Rank: 1 (Overall)
0.44
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
NA
Ductile, Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
5.91
Rank: 54 (Overall)
11.35
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
Diamagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Semiconductor
Poor Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
270.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 15 (Overall)
208.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.07 106/cm Ω
Rank: 29 (Overall)
0.05 106/cm Ω
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
28.90 kJ/mol
Rank: 31 (Overall)
35.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.37 J/(kg K)
Rank: 16 (Overall)
0.13 J/(kg K)
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
25.86 J/mol·K
Rank: 35 (Overall)
26.65 J/mol·K
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
40.60 W/m·K
Rank: 34 (Overall)
35.30 W/m·K
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
18.00 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 24 (Overall)
28.90 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
256.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 36 (Overall)
179.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
5.59 kJ/mol
Rank: 51 (Overall)
4.77 kJ/mol
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
276.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 39 (Overall)
194.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
40.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 38 (Overall)
64.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Beryllium
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