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Thallium
Thallium




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What is Thallium?

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Tl
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
13
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
p block
1.5 Element Family
Post-​Transition
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440280
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Compounds of Thallium metal are highly Toxic.
  • Thallium metal is being suspected as a human carcinogen.
2.2 Sources
Found As a By-product, Ores of metals, Ores of Minerals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
William Crookes
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1861
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
5 * 10-9 %
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Thallium is a toxic metal and hence it has limited uses. Thallium metal is mostly used for producing photoelectric cells.
  • In thermometer’s mercury alloy has 8% of thallium, as it has a melting point lower than 20°C.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Medical Research
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Highly Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
70% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
0.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
303.50 °C
Rank: 69 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
1,457.00 °C
Rank: 60 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery White
4.3.3 Luster
NA
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
1.20
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
26.50 MPa
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
818.00 m/s
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
20% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Tl
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
32
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.62
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
2.25
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.44
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
1.96
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.79
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.38
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
589.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 58 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,971.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,878.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
7.63 g/amp-hr
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
3.84 eV
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
81
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
6.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
81
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
123
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
81
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
170.00 pm
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
145.00 pm
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
196.00 pm
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
204.38 amu
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
17.20 cm3/mol
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
9.60 (-eV)
Rank: 64 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
345.66 pm
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
1.60
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
11.85 g/cm3
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
11.22 g/cm3
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
16.90 (Pa)
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
2.80 GPa
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
43.00 GPa
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
8.00 GPa
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.45
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Sectile
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
11.85
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
0.18 nΩ·m
Rank: 70 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.06 106/cm Ω
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
19.20 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.13 J/(kg K)
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
26.32 J/mol·K
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
46.10 W/m·K
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
29.90 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
162.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
4.27 kJ/mol
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
179.90 kJ/mol
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
64.20 J/mol.K
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Beryllium
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