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Platinum
Platinum

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Platinum
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Platinum vs Gold

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Pt
Au
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
10
Rank: 8 (Overall)
11
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
d block
d block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Transition Metal
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440064
Rank: 73 (Overall)
7440575
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m
Fm_ 3m
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
225.00
Rank: 2 (Overall)
225.00
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Platinum is the rarest metal from the Precious metal categories..
  • Commercially Platinum is produced as a byproduct in ores of nickel.
  • It is found in copper ores and from the crust of the earth.
  • It is the most malleable and ductile metal.
  • Gold alloys are used in Dentistry as fillings, crowning, clips, etc. It is also used as an artificial limb joints.
2.2 Sources
Mining, Ores of metals, Ores of Minerals
Earth's crust, Mining, Ores of metals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Antonio de Ulloa
Unknown
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1735
Before 6000 BCE
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
5 * 10-7 %
Rank: 19 (Overall)
6 * 10-8 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000009 %
Rank: 19 (Overall)
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 25 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 49 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Platinum metal is mainly used in jewellery.
  • Platinum is used as an industrial catalyst in production of nitric acid, silicone and benzene.
  • Gold metal is mainly used for Jewelry, bullion, coinage, etc.
  • It is used in the art, decoration, ornaments, etc. It is also used for electroplating process.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Chemical Industry
Chemical Industry, Clothing Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Dentistry, Pharmaceutical Industry, Surgical Instruments Manufacturing
Dentistry, Pharmaceutical Industry
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys, Bullion, Coinage, Jewellery, Sculptures, Statues
Alloys, Bullion, Coinage, Jewellery, Sculptures, Statues
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Non Toxic
Non Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.02 p.p.m.
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
1,772.00 °C
Rank: 16 (Overall)
1,064.43 °C
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
3,827.00 °C
Rank: 15 (Overall)
2,807.00 °C
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery White
Gold
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Metallic
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
3.50
Rank: 11 (Overall)
2.50
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
300.00 MPa
Rank: 34 (Overall)
194.00 MPa
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
400.00 MPa
Rank: 25 (Overall)
216.00 MPa
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
2,800.00 m/s
Rank: 29 (Overall)
2,030.00 m/s
Rank: 44 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
73.00 %
Rank: 8 (Overall)
95.00 %
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Pt
Au
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
35
Rank: 4 (Overall)
36
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
2.28
Rank: 3 (Overall)
2.54
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.44
Rank: 17 (Overall)
1.42
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.87
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.72
Rank: 16 (Overall)
1.92
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
1.72
Rank: 50 (Overall)
1.46
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
870.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
890.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,791.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
1,980.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.82 g/amp-hr
Rank: 35 (Overall)
2.45 g/amp-hr
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
5.65 eV
Rank: 1 (Overall)
5.10 eV
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Anti Corrosion, Ionization
Chemical Stability, Ionization, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
78
Rank: 38 (Overall)
79
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
6.3 Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
78
Rank: 38 (Overall)
79
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
117
Rank: 24 (Overall)
118
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
78
Rank: 38 (Overall)
79
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
139.00 pm
Rank: 39 (Overall)
151.00 pm
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
136.00 pm
Rank: 46 (Overall)
144.00 pm
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
175.00 pm
Rank: 36 (Overall)
166.00 pm
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
47.87 amu
Rank: 78 (Overall)
196.97 amu
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
9.09 cm3/mol
Rank: 53 (Overall)
10.20 cm3/mol
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
392.42 (-eV)
Rank: 1 (Overall)
43.40 (-eV)
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
392.42 pm
Rank: 24 (Overall)
407.82 pm
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
π/2, π/2, π/2
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.61
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
21.45 g/cm3
Rank: 11 (Overall)
19.30 g/cm3
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
19.77 g/cm3
Rank: 2 (Overall)
17.31 g/cm3
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
125.00 MPa
Rank: 14 (Overall)
120.00 MPa
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
0.07 (Pa)
Rank: 18 (Overall)
67.00 (Pa)
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
61.00 GPa
Rank: 14 (Overall)
27.00 GPa
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
230.00 GPa
Rank: 6 (Overall)
180.00 GPa
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
168.00 GPa
Rank: 14 (Overall)
79.00 GPa
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.38
Rank: 6 (Overall)
0.40
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable
Ductile, Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
21.45
Rank: 4 (Overall)
19.32
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Diamagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
0.00 H/m
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
105.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 30 (Overall)
2.20 nΩ·m
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.10 106/cm Ω
Rank: 21 (Overall)
0.45 106/cm Ω
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
205.30 kJ/mol
Rank: 2 (Overall)
222.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.13 J/(kg K)
Rank: 39 (Overall)
0.13 J/(kg K)
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
25.86 J/mol·K
Rank: 35 (Overall)
25.42 J/mol·K
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
71.60 W/m·K
Rank: 24 (Overall)
318.00 W/m·K
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
8.80 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 44 (Overall)
14.20 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
510.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
324.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
19.70 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
12.55 kJ/mol
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
565.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
364.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
41.60 J/mol.K
Rank: 36 (Overall)
47.40 J/mol.K
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium
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