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Thallium
Thallium

Einsteinium
Einsteinium



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Thallium
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Einsteinium

Thallium vs Einsteinium

1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Tl
Es
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
13
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
7
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
p block
f block
1.5 Element Family
Post-​Transition
Actinide
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440280
Rank: 52 (Overall)
7429927
Rank: 90 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
Not Available
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Compounds of Thallium metal are highly Toxic.
  • Thallium metal is being suspected as a human carcinogen.
  • Einsteinium is the transuranic element found in US.
  • Only 0.01 mg of Einsteinium was synthesized in 1961.
2.2 Sources
Found As a By-product, Ores of metals, Ores of Minerals
Made by Bombarding Uranium with Neutrons
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
William Crookes
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1861
In 1952
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
5 * 10-9 %
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
~-9999 %
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Thallium is a toxic metal and hence it has limited uses. Thallium metal is mostly used for producing photoelectric cells.
  • In thermometer’s mercury alloy has 8% of thallium, as it has a melting point lower than 20°C.
  • Currently known uses of Einsteinium metal are limited to research purpose only.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry
NA
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Medical Research
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys, Nuclear Research, Research Purposes
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Highly Toxic
Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
70% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
7% Actinide Series Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 34 (Overall)
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
0.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 33 (Overall)
0.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
303.50 °C
Rank: 69 (Overall)
860.00 °C
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
1,457.00 °C
Rank: 60 (Overall)
996.00 °C
Rank: 68 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery White
Silver
4.3.3 Luster
NA
NA
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
1.20
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
26.50 MPa
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
818.00 m/s
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
20% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
No Actinide Series Metals has it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Tl
Es
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
32
Rank: 7 (Overall)
16
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.62
Rank: 21 (Overall)
1.54
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
2.25
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.44
Rank: 17 (Overall)
1.20
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
1.96
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.79
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.38
Rank: 33 (Overall)
2.70
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
589.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 58 (Overall)
619.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,971.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
1,216.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 59 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,878.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
2,334.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 55 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
3,734.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
7.63 g/amp-hr
Rank: 2 (Overall)
4.74 g/amp-hr
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
3.84 eV
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Radioactivity
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
81
Rank: 35 (Overall)
99
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
[Rn] 5f11 7s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
81
Rank: 35 (Overall)
99
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
123
Rank: 20 (Overall)
153
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
81
Rank: 35 (Overall)
99
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
170.00 pm
Rank: 22 (Overall)
186.00 pm
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
145.00 pm
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
196.00 pm
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
204.38 amu
Rank: 31 (Overall)
252.00 amu
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
17.20 cm3/mol
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
9.60 (-eV)
Rank: 64 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
345.66 pm
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
NA
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
1.60
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
11.85 g/cm3
Rank: 31 (Overall)
8.84 g/cm3
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
11.22 g/cm3
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
16.90 (Pa)
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
2.80 GPa
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
43.00 GPa
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
8.00 GPa
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.45
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Sectile
NA
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
11.85
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
Paramagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
ADD ⊕
8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Unknown
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
0.18 nΩ·m
Rank: 70 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.06 106/cm Ω
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
19.20 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.13 J/(kg K)
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
26.32 J/mol·K
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
46.10 W/m·K
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
29.90 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
162.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
4.27 kJ/mol
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
179.90 kJ/mol
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
64.20 J/mol.K
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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