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Vanadium
Vanadium

Cadmium
Cadmium



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Vanadium
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Cadmium

Vanadium vs Cadmium

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
V
Cd
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
5
Rank: 13 (Overall)
12
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
4
Rank: 4 (Overall)
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
d block
d block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Transition Metal
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440622
Rank: 27 (Overall)
7440439
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
Im_ 3m
P63/mmc
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
229.00
Rank: 1 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Vanadium is a highly reactive metal, hence it is not found free in nature.
  • Vanadium can be found in almost 65 different types of minerals.
  • Naturally occurring minor elements include Cadmium.
  • Cadmium is released into atmosphere to control volcanic eruption and forest fires.
  • It is used for electroplating of Steel for corrosion resistance.
  • It can absorb neutrons and used in nuclear reactor to control atomic fission.
2.2 Sources
Found As a By-product, Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
Found As a By-product, Found in Minerals, Mining
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Andrés Manuel del Río
Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1801
In 1817
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
1 * 10-4 %
Rank: 10 (Overall)
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.00004 %
Rank: 13 (Overall)
~0.0000006 %
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.01 %
Rank: 14 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.02 %
Rank: 12 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 46 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 14 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
0.00 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Its ally with steel is used very tough and hence it is used in armor plates, axles, piston rods, tools and crankshafts.
  • Its oxide is used as pigments for glass and ceramics.
  • It has very limited uses as it is a toxic metal and it can cause birth defects, cancer, etc.
  • Almost 80% of Cadmium metal is used in Nickel cadmium Batteries and now it is getting replaced with nickel hydride.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry
Aerospace Industry, Ammunition Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Toxic
Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 36 (Overall)
0.01 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
0.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 31 (Overall)
1.80 p.p.m.
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
1,890.00 °C
Rank: 13 (Overall)
320.90 °C
Rank: 68 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
3,380.00 °C
Rank: 20 (Overall)
765.00 °C
Rank: 73 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Blue-Silver Grey
Silvery Bluish-Gray
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Metallic
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
6.70
Rank: 4 (Overall)
2.00
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
600.00 MPa
Rank: 20 (Overall)
203.00 MPa
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
628.00 MPa
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
4,560.00 m/s
Rank: 17 (Overall)
2,310.00 m/s
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
61.00 %
Rank: 14 (Overall)
67.00 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
V
Cd
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
22
Rank: 17 (Overall)
34
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.63
Rank: 20 (Overall)
1.69
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
1.39
Rank: 17 (Overall)
1.98
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.45
Rank: 16 (Overall)
1.46
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.53
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.53
Rank: 26 (Overall)
1.52
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.37
Rank: 34 (Overall)
2.31
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
650.90 kJ/mol
Rank: 42 (Overall)
867.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,414.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 47 (Overall)
1,631.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,830.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 35 (Overall)
3,616.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
4,507.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
6,298.70 kJ/mol
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
12,363.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
14,530.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
16,730.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
19,860.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
22,240.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
24,670.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
29,730.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
32,446.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
86,450.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
94,170.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
102,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
112,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
121,600.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
130,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
143,400.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
151,440.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
0.38 g/amp-hr
Rank: 71 (Overall)
2.10 g/amp-hr
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
4.30 eV
Rank: 18 (Overall)
4.22 eV
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes
Chemical Stability, Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
23
Rank: 83 (Overall)
48
Rank: 64 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
[Kr] 4d10 5s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
23
Rank: 82 (Overall)
48
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
28
Rank: 61 (Overall)
64
Rank: 46 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
23
Rank: 82 (Overall)
48
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
134.00 pm
Rank: 43 (Overall)
151.00 pm
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
153.00 pm
Rank: 33 (Overall)
144.00 pm
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
158.00 pm
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
50.94 amu
Rank: 77 (Overall)
112.41 amu
Rank: 58 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
8.78 cm3/mol
Rank: 56 (Overall)
13.10 cm3/mol
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
120.00 (-eV)
Rank: 6 (Overall)
30.00 (-eV)
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
303.00 pm
Rank: 58 (Overall)
297.94 pm
Rank: 60 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.89
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
6.00 g/cm3
Rank: 66 (Overall)
8.65 g/cm3
Rank: 47 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
5.50 g/cm3
Rank: 46 (Overall)
8.00 g/cm3
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
800.00 MPa
Rank: 6 (Overall)
62.00 MPa
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
0.23 (Pa)
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
47.00 GPa
Rank: 16 (Overall)
19.00 GPa
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
160.00 GPa
Rank: 11 (Overall)
42.00 GPa
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
128.00 GPa
Rank: 15 (Overall)
50.00 GPa
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.37
Rank: 7 (Overall)
0.30
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable
Ductile, Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
5.96
Rank: 53 (Overall)
8.65
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Diamagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Superconductor
Semiconductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
197.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 19 (Overall)
72.70 nΩ·m
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.05 106/cm Ω
Rank: 35 (Overall)
0.14 106/cm Ω
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
50.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
0.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.49 J/(kg K)
Rank: 10 (Overall)
0.23 J/(kg K)
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
24.89 J/mol·K
Rank: 46 (Overall)
26.02 J/mol·K
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
30.70 W/m·K
Rank: 39 (Overall)
96.60 W/m·K
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
8.40 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 46 (Overall)
30.80 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
458.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
100.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
17.57 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
6.19 kJ/mol
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
514.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 13 (Overall)
113.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
28.90 J/mol.K
Rank: 52 (Overall)
51.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Beryllium
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