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Chromium
Chromium

Mercury
Mercury



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Chromium
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Chromium vs Mercury

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Cr
Hg
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
6
Rank: 12 (Overall)
12
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
4
Rank: 4 (Overall)
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
d block
d block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Transition Metal
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440473
Rank: 39 (Overall)
7439976
Rank: 81 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
Im_ 3m
R_ 3m
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
229.00
Rank: 1 (Overall)
166.00
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Chromium is highly reactive, hence it is not found free in nature.
  • Ores of Chromites mineral are the major source of Chromium metal.
  • Almost 90% leather tanning is done with the help of chromium.
  • At room temperature mercury is found in a liquid state.
  • A coin of pound or rupees floats in mercury.
  • Because of its low melting point and boiling point it is used in thermometers.
2.2 Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of metals, Ores of Minerals
Mining, Ores of Minerals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
Ancient Chinese and Indians
2.3.2 Discovery
In Between 1797 - 1798
Before 2000 BCE
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
1.5 * 10-3 %
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.002 %
Rank: 7 (Overall)
~-9999 %
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.30 %
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.01 %
Rank: 13 (Overall)
0.05 %
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
0.00 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • It is used to harden the steel and produces a stainless steel and other various alloys.
  • It is also used to give proper finish to polished mirrors. Its chromium plates are used in bathroom fittings.
  • It is a liquid metal at room temperature, but it is a toxic heavy metal and hence many uses of mercury are under review or phased out.
  • It is manly used as a catalysts in chemical industry.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry
Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
Dentistry
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys, Mirror Manufacturing, Pharmaceutical Industry
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Highly Toxic
Highly Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.11 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 12 (Overall)
0.01 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
0.33 p.p.m.
Rank: 21 (Overall)
0.45 p.p.m.
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
1,857.00 °C
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
2,672.00 °C
Rank: 39 (Overall)
356.58 °C
Rank: 78 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Liquid
4.3.2 Color
Silver
Silver
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
NA
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
8.50
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
687.00 MPa
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
1,060.00 MPa
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
5,940.00 m/s
Rank: 5 (Overall)
1,451.40 m/s
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.00
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
73.00 %
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Cr
Hg
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
21
Rank: 18 (Overall)
34
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.66
Rank: 18 (Overall)
2.00
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
1.66
Rank: 14 (Overall)
2.20
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.56
Rank: 10 (Overall)
1.44
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.81
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Cesium
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1.2.1 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.65
Rank: 19 (Overall)
1.44
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Cesium
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1.3 Electropositivity
1.3.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.34
Rank: 36 (Overall)
2.00
Rank: 46 (Overall)
Gold
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1.5 Ionization Energies
1.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
26,130.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
1,007.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Cesium
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1.8.1 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
28,750.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
1,810.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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1.10.1 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
34,230.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
3,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Osmium
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2.2.1 4th Energy Level
Chromium
37,066.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thorium
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2.4.2 5th Energy Level
Chromium
97,510.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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2.4.4 6th Energy Level
Chromium
105,800.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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2.4.6 7th Energy level
Chromium
114,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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2.4.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
125,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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2.4.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
134,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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2.4.11 10th Energy Level
Chromium
144,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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2.4.13 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
26,130.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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3.2.4 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
28,750.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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3.2.5 13th Energy Level
Titanium
34,230.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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3.2.7 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
37,066.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.1.1 15th Energy Level
Chromium
97,510.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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4.1.2 16th Energy Level
Manganese
105,800.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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4.2.1 17th Energy Level
Iron
114,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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4.3.3 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
125,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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4.4.2 19th Energy Level
Nickel
134,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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4.4.4 20th Energy Level
Zinc
144,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.4.5 21st Energy Level
Zinc
157,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.4.7 22nd Energy Level
Copper
166,090.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.4.8 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.5.1 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.6.2 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
4.6.3 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
4.6.5 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
4.6.6 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
4.6.7 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.2.2 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.3 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
0.32 g/amp-hr
Rank: 73 (Overall)
3.74 g/amp-hr
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.4 Electron Work Function
Platinum
4.50 eV
Rank: 14 (Overall)
4.49 eV
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.6 Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Chemical Stability, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Flammability, Ionization, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
24
Rank: 82 (Overall)
80
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d5 4s1
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
Rhombohedral (RHO)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
24
Rank: 81 (Overall)
80
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
28
Rank: 61 (Overall)
121
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.4 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
24
Rank: 81 (Overall)
80
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
128.00 pm
Rank: 46 (Overall)
151.00 pm
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Covalent Radius
Francium
139.00 pm
Rank: 45 (Overall)
132.00 pm
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.4 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
155.00 pm
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
52.00 amu
Rank: 76 (Overall)
200.59 amu
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
7.23 cm3/mol
Rank: 60 (Overall)
14.82 cm3/mol
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
170.00 (-eV)
Rank: 4 (Overall)
28.20 (-eV)
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
291.00 pm
Rank: 62 (Overall)
300.50 pm
Rank: 59 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
NA
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
7.19 g/cm3
Rank: 58 (Overall)
13.53 g/cm3
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.1.1 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
6.30 g/cm3
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Tensile Strength
Iron
689.00 MPa
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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1.5 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Mercury
1.8 Vapor Pressure
1.8.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium
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1.8.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
774.00 (Pa)
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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1.10 Elasticity properties
1.10.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
115.00 GPa
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Potassium
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1.10.3 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
160.00 GPa
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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1.11.1 Young's Modulus
Iridium
279.00 GPa
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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1.12 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.21
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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1.14 Other Mechanical Properties
NA
NA
2 Magnetic
2.1 Magnetic Characteristics
2.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
7.19
Rank: 46 (Overall)
13.53
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Lithium
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2.1.4 Magnetic Ordering
Antiferromagnetic
Diamagnetic
2.1.5 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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2.2.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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2.3 Electrical Properties
2.3.1 Electrical Property
NA
Conductor
2.3.2 Resistivity
Mercury
125.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 27 (Overall)
961.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.3.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.08 106/cm Ω
Rank: 25 (Overall)
0.01 106/cm Ω
Rank: 57 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2.3.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
64.30 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
0.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Mercury
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3 Thermal
3.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.45 J/(kg K)
Rank: 12 (Overall)
0.14 J/(kg K)
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Americium
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3.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
23.35 J/mol·K
Rank: 55 (Overall)
27.98 J/mol·K
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Beryllium
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3.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
93.90 W/m·K
Rank: 17 (Overall)
8.30 W/m·K
Rank: 66 (Overall)
Neptunium
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3.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1,750.00 K
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Ytterbium
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3.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
4.90 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 57 (Overall)
60.40 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Tungsten
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3.6 Enthalpy
3.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
348.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 24 (Overall)
56.90 kJ/mol
Rank: 59 (Overall)
Zinc
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3.6.3 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
15.31 kJ/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
2.29 kJ/mol
Rank: 61 (Overall)
Cesium
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3.6.4 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
397.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
61.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 62 (Overall)
Mercury
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3.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
23.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 57 (Overall)
75.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Beryllium
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