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Lanthanum
Lanthanum

Cerium
Cerium



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Lanthanum
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Lanthanum vs Cerium

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
La
Ce
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gadolinium
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2.2 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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2.3 Block
f block
f block
2.4 Element Family
Lanthanide
Lanthanide
2.5 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7439910
Rank: 87 (Overall)
7440451
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Aluminium
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2.8 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
P63/mmc
2.9 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3 Facts
3.1 Interesting Facts
  • Lanthanum metal is highly malleable, ductile and sectile.
  • If exposed to air Lanthanum metal oxidizes rapidly.
  • Cerium is a rare earth metal but still it is not rare at all.
  • It’s non-toxic compound Cerium sulfide has a rich red color and it is used as a pigment.
  • Cerium metal is also used in Flat screen TVs, light bulb, floodlights, etc.
3.2 Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
3.3 History
3.3.1 Who Discovered
Carl Gustaf Mosander
Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger
3.3.2 Discovery
In 1838
In 1803
3.4 Abundance
3.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
1 * 10-6 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Thallium
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3.6.1 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000002 %
Rank: 25 (Overall)
~0.0000004 %
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Beryllium
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3.7.2 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 32 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Gold
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3.7.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 19 (Overall)
0.01 %
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Radium
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3.7.6 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 29 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Protactinium
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3.9.2 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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4 Uses
4.1 Uses & Benefits
  • It has no commercial uses, but its alloys are in high demand. Lanthanum and Nickel alloy is used for the hydrogen gas storage.
  • The best-known use for mischmetal alloy of Lanthanum is; as a ‘flints’ for cigarette lighters.
  • It is used to include flints for cigarette lighters.
  • Its compound Cerium (Ill) Oxide is used as a catalyst; it is put inside the walls of the oven as it prevents from the buildup of cooking residues.
4.1.1 Industrial Uses
Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
Chemical Industry
4.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
Medical Research
4.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys, Mirror Manufacturing
Alloys
4.2 Biological Properties
4.2.1 Toxicity
Low Toxic
Moderately Toxic
4.2.2 Present in Human Body
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
4.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4.2.5 In Bone
Calcium
0.08 p.p.m.
Rank: 24 (Overall)
2.70 p.p.m.
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Plutonium
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5 Physical
5.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
920.00 °C
Rank: 49 (Overall)
795.00 °C
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Francium
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5.4 Boiling Point
Tungsten
3,469.00 °C
Rank: 18 (Overall)
3,257.00 °C
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Flerovium
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6.2 Appearance
6.2.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
6.2.2 Color
Silvery White
Silvery White
6.2.3 Luster
NA
Lustrous
6.3 Hardness
6.3.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
2.50
Rank: 14 (Overall)
2.50
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Cesium
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6.3.3 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
350.00 MPa
Rank: 30 (Overall)
186.00 MPa
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Cesium
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6.3.5 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
360.00 MPa
Rank: 26 (Overall)
210.00 MPa
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Palladium
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6.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
2,475.00 m/s
Rank: 37 (Overall)
2,100.00 m/s
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Thallium
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6.6 Optical Properties
6.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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6.6.3 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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7.2 Allotropes
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
7.2.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
7.2.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
7.2.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
8 Chemical
8.1 Chemical Formula
La
Ce
8.2 Isotopes
8.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
31
Rank: 8 (Overall)
30
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Tennessine
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8.4 Electronegativity
8.4.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.10
Rank: 44 (Overall)
1.12
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Francium
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8.4.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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8.5.1 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.08
Rank: 31 (Overall)
1.08
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Cesium
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8.6.1 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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8.7.1 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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8.8 Electropositivity
8.8.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.90
Rank: 10 (Overall)
2.88
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Gold
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8.10 Ionization Energies
8.10.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
538.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 75 (Overall)
534.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 76 (Overall)
Cesium
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8.11.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,067.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 76 (Overall)
1,050.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 78 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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8.11.4 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
1,850.30 kJ/mol
Rank: 80 (Overall)
1,949.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 78 (Overall)
Osmium
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8.11.6 4th Energy Level
Chromium
4,819.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 22 (Overall)
3,547.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 55 (Overall)
Thorium
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8.11.7 5th Energy Level
Chromium
5,940.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 25 (Overall)
6,325.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Dubnium
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8.11.8 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
7,490.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Seaborgium
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8.11.9 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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8.11.10 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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8.11.11 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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8.11.12 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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8.11.13 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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8.11.14 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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8.11.15 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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8.11.16 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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8.11.17 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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8.11.18 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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8.11.19 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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8.11.20 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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8.11.21 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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8.11.22 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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8.11.23 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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8.11.24 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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8.11.25 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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8.11.26 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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8.11.27 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
8.11.28 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
8.11.29 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
8.11.30 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
8.11.31 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
8.11.32 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
8.12 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.73 g/amp-hr
Rank: 42 (Overall)
1.74 g/amp-hr
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Beryllium
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8.13 Electron Work Function
Platinum
3.50 eV
Rank: 31 (Overall)
2.84 eV
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Cesium
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8.14 Other Chemical Properties
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Chemical Stability, Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
9 Atomic
9.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
57
Rank: 59 (Overall)
58
Rank: 58 (Overall)
Lithium
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9.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 5d2 6s2
[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
9.3 Crystal Structure
Double Hexagonal Close Packed (DHCP)
Double Hexagonal Close Packed (DHCP)
9.3.1 Crystal Lattice
9.4 Atom
9.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
57
Rank: 58 (Overall)
58
Rank: 57 (Overall)
Lithium
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9.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
82
Rank: 41 (Overall)
82
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Lithium
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9.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
57
Rank: 58 (Overall)
58
Rank: 57 (Overall)
Lithium
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9.5 Radius of an Atom
9.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
187.00 pm
Rank: 8 (Overall)
181.80 pm
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
207.00 pm
Rank: 6 (Overall)
204.00 pm
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
240.00 pm
Rank: 13 (Overall)
235.00 pm
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
138.91 amu
Rank: 53 (Overall)
140.12 amu
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Lithium
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9.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
20.73 cm3/mol
Rank: 16 (Overall)
20.67 cm3/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Manganese
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9.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
9.8.1 Previous Element
9.8.2 Next Element
9.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
40.71 (-eV)
Rank: 46 (Overall)
41.78 (-eV)
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Francium
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9.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
377.20 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
362.00 pm
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
9.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
1.62
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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10 Mechanical
10.1 Density
10.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
6.16 g/cm3
Rank: 65 (Overall)
6.77 g/cm3
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Lithium
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10.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
5.94 g/cm3
Rank: 44 (Overall)
6.55 g/cm3
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Lithium
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10.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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10.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
10.4 Vapor Pressure
10.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Cerium
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10.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
0.98 (Pa)
Rank: 15 (Overall)
1.04 (Pa)
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Tungsten
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10.5 Elasticity properties
10.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
14.30 GPa
Rank: 40 (Overall)
13.50 GPa
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Potassium
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10.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
27.90 GPa
Rank: 41 (Overall)
21.50 GPa
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Cesium
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10.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
36.60 GPa
Rank: 42 (Overall)
33.60 GPa
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Cesium
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10.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.28
Rank: 17 (Overall)
0.24
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Beryllium
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10.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile
Ductile, Malleable
11 Magnetic
11.1 Magnetic Characteristics
11.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
6.17
Rank: 52 (Overall)
6.77
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Lithium
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11.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Paramagnetic
11.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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11.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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11.2 Electrical Properties
11.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
11.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
615.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 7 (Overall)
828.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Thallium
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11.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.01 106/cm Ω
Rank: 51 (Overall)
0.01 106/cm Ω
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Plutonium
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11.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
48.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 23 (Overall)
50.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Mercury
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12 Thermal
12.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.19 J/(kg K)
Rank: 32 (Overall)
0.19 J/(kg K)
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Americium
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12.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
27.11 J/mol·K
Rank: 21 (Overall)
26.94 J/mol·K
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Beryllium
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12.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
13.40 W/m·K
Rank: 57 (Overall)
11.30 W/m·K
Rank: 61 (Overall)
Neptunium
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12.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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12.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
12.10 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 32 (Overall)
6.30 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Tungsten
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12.6 Enthalpy
12.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
399.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
414.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Zinc
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12.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
6.20 kJ/mol
Rank: 49 (Overall)
5.46 kJ/mol
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Cesium
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12.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
431.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 16 (Overall)
381.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Mercury
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12.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
56.90 J/mol.K
Rank: 23 (Overall)
72.00 J/mol.K
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Beryllium
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