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Thallium
Thallium

Cadmium
Cadmium



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Thallium
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Thallium vs Cadmium

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Tl
Cd
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
13
Rank: 5 (Overall)
12
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.6 Block
p block
d block
1.7 Element Family
Post-​Transition
Transition Metal
1.8 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440280
Rank: 52 (Overall)
7440439
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.10 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
P63/mmc
1.11 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Compounds of Thallium metal are highly Toxic.
  • Thallium metal is being suspected as a human carcinogen.
  • Naturally occurring minor elements include Cadmium.
  • Cadmium is released into atmosphere to control volcanic eruption and forest fires.
  • It is used for electroplating of Steel for corrosion resistance.
  • It can absorb neutrons and used in nuclear reactor to control atomic fission.
2.2 Sources
Found As a By-product, Ores of metals, Ores of Minerals
Found As a By-product, Found in Minerals, Mining
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
William Crookes
Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1861
In 1817
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
5 * 10-9 %
Rank: 32 (Overall)
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
~0.0000006 %
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.4 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 41 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Gold
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2.6.2 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 42 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 46 (Overall)
Radium
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2.6.3 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 34 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.6.5 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Thallium is a toxic metal and hence it has limited uses. Thallium metal is mostly used for producing photoelectric cells.
  • In thermometer’s mercury alloy has 8% of thallium, as it has a melting point lower than 20°C.
  • It has very limited uses as it is a toxic metal and it can cause birth defects, cancer, etc.
  • Almost 80% of Cadmium metal is used in Nickel cadmium Batteries and now it is getting replaced with nickel hydride.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Chemical Industry
Aerospace Industry, Ammunition Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Medical Research
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Highly Toxic
Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
70% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 34 (Overall)
0.01 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
0.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 33 (Overall)
1.80 p.p.m.
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
303.50 °C
Rank: 69 (Overall)
320.90 °C
Rank: 68 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
1,457.00 °C
Rank: 60 (Overall)
765.00 °C
Rank: 73 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.5 Appearance
4.5.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.5.2 Color
Silvery White
Silvery Bluish-Gray
4.5.3 Luster
NA
Metallic
4.6 Hardness
4.6.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
1.20
Rank: 20 (Overall)
2.00
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.1.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
26.50 MPa
Rank: 50 (Overall)
203.00 MPa
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.1.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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5.2 Speed of Sound
Technetium
818.00 m/s
Rank: 53 (Overall)
2,310.00 m/s
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Thallium
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5.3 Optical Properties
5.3.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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5.4.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
67.00 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5 Allotropes
20% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
5.5.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5.5.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5.5.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
6 Chemical
6.1 Chemical Formula
Tl
Cd
6.2 Isotopes
6.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
32
Rank: 7 (Overall)
34
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Tennessine
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6.3 Electronegativity
6.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.62
Rank: 21 (Overall)
1.69
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Francium
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6.3.3 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
2.25
Rank: 5 (Overall)
1.98
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Cesium
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6.3.4 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.44
Rank: 17 (Overall)
1.46
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.1.1 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
1.96
Rank: 6 (Overall)
1.53
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.1.2 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.79
Rank: 13 (Overall)
1.52
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.3 Electropositivity
7.3.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.38
Rank: 33 (Overall)
2.31
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Gold
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7.5 Ionization Energies
7.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
589.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 58 (Overall)
867.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6.1 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,971.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
1,631.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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7.6.2 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
2,878.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
3,616.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Osmium
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7.7.1 4th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thorium
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7.7.2 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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7.8.1 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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7.9.2 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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7.9.3 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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7.9.5 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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7.9.6 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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7.9.8 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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7.9.9 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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7.9.10 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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7.9.11 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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7.9.12 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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7.9.13 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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7.9.14 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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7.9.15 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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7.9.16 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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7.9.17 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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7.9.18 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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7.9.19 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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7.9.20 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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7.9.21 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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7.9.22 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
7.9.23 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
7.9.24 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
7.9.25 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
7.9.26 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
7.9.27 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
7.10 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
7.63 g/amp-hr
Rank: 2 (Overall)
2.10 g/amp-hr
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.11 Electron Work Function
Platinum
3.84 eV
Rank: 28 (Overall)
4.22 eV
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.12 Other Chemical Properties
Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Chemical Stability, Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
8 Atomic
8.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
81
Rank: 35 (Overall)
48
Rank: 64 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.2 Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
[Kr] 4d10 5s2
8.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
8.3.1 Crystal Lattice
8.4 Atom
8.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
81
Rank: 35 (Overall)
48
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
123
Rank: 20 (Overall)
64
Rank: 46 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
81
Rank: 35 (Overall)
48
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.5 Radius of an Atom
8.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
170.00 pm
Rank: 22 (Overall)
151.00 pm
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium
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8.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
145.00 pm
Rank: 39 (Overall)
144.00 pm
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Beryllium
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8.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
196.00 pm
Rank: 30 (Overall)
158.00 pm
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Zinc
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8.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
204.38 amu
Rank: 31 (Overall)
112.41 amu
Rank: 58 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
17.20 cm3/mol
Rank: 31 (Overall)
13.10 cm3/mol
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Manganese
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8.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
8.8.1 Previous Element
8.8.2 Next Element
8.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
9.60 (-eV)
Rank: 64 (Overall)
30.00 (-eV)
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Francium
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8.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
345.66 pm
Rank: 45 (Overall)
297.94 pm
Rank: 60 (Overall)
Beryllium
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8.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
8.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
1.60
Rank: 6 (Overall)
1.89
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9 Mechanical
9.1 Density
9.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
11.85 g/cm3
Rank: 31 (Overall)
8.65 g/cm3
Rank: 47 (Overall)
Lithium
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9.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
11.22 g/cm3
Rank: 13 (Overall)
8.00 g/cm3
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Lithium
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9.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
62.00 MPa
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Indium
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9.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
9.4 Vapor Pressure
9.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
16.90 (Pa)
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium
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9.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.5 Elasticity properties
9.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
2.80 GPa
Rank: 51 (Overall)
19.00 GPa
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Potassium
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9.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
43.00 GPa
Rank: 28 (Overall)
42.00 GPa
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
8.00 GPa
Rank: 54 (Overall)
50.00 GPa
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.45
Rank: 2 (Overall)
0.30
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Sectile
Ductile, Malleable
10 Magnetic
10.1 Magnetic Characteristics
10.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
11.85
Rank: 22 (Overall)
8.65
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Lithium
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10.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
Diamagnetic
10.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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10.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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10.2 Electrical Properties
10.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Semiconductor
10.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
0.18 nΩ·m
Rank: 70 (Overall)
72.70 nΩ·m
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Thallium
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10.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.06 106/cm Ω
Rank: 32 (Overall)
0.14 106/cm Ω
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Plutonium
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10.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
19.20 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
0.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Mercury
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11 Thermal
11.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.13 J/(kg K)
Rank: 39 (Overall)
0.23 J/(kg K)
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Americium
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11.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
26.32 J/mol·K
Rank: 29 (Overall)
26.02 J/mol·K
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium
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11.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
46.10 W/m·K
Rank: 33 (Overall)
96.60 W/m·K
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Neptunium
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11.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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11.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
29.90 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 12 (Overall)
30.80 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Tungsten
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11.6 Enthalpy
11.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
162.10 kJ/mol
Rank: 45 (Overall)
100.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Zinc
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11.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
4.27 kJ/mol
Rank: 54 (Overall)
6.19 kJ/mol
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Cesium
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11.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
179.90 kJ/mol
Rank: 48 (Overall)
113.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Mercury
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11.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
64.20 J/mol.K
Rank: 19 (Overall)
51.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Beryllium
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