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Cadmium
Cadmium

Indium
Indium



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Cadmium
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Indium

Cadmium vs Indium

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Cd
In
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
12
Rank: 6 (Overall)
13
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
d block
p block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Post-​Transition
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440439
Rank: 42 (Overall)
7440746
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
I4/mmm
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
139.00
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Naturally occurring minor elements include Cadmium.
  • Cadmium is released into atmosphere to control volcanic eruption and forest fires.
  • It is used for electroplating of Steel for corrosion resistance.
  • It can absorb neutrons and used in nuclear reactor to control atomic fission.
  • Luster of Indium is bright in nature.
  • Reich and richer were looking for thallium in zinc metal and they discovered Indium metal.
2.2 Sources
Found As a By-product, Found in Minerals, Mining
Mining, Ores of metals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer
Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1817
In 1863
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
3 * 10-8 %
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000006 %
Rank: 21 (Overall)
~0.0000004 %
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 31 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 46 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 28 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
0.00 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • It has very limited uses as it is a toxic metal and it can cause birth defects, cancer, etc.
  • Almost 80% of Cadmium metal is used in Nickel cadmium Batteries and now it is getting replaced with nickel hydride.
  • It is used to produce indium tin oxide (ITO), it is used in manufacturing touch screens, flat screen TVs and solar panels.
  • Its nitride, phosphide and antimonide are used in transistors and microchips.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Ammunition Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
Medical Research
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys, In Nuclear Reactors
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Toxic
Non Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
70% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.01 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
1.80 p.p.m.
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
320.90 °C
Rank: 68 (Overall)
156.61 °C
Rank: 74 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
765.00 °C
Rank: 73 (Overall)
2,000.00 °C
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery Bluish-Gray
Silvery Gray
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Lustrous
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
2.00
Rank: 16 (Overall)
1.20
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
203.00 MPa
Rank: 39 (Overall)
8.80 MPa
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
2,310.00 m/s
Rank: 39 (Overall)
1,215.00 m/s
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
67.00 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
20% Post Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Cd
In
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
34
Rank: 5 (Overall)
35
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.69
Rank: 17 (Overall)
1.78
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
1.98
Rank: 9 (Overall)
2.14
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.46
Rank: 15 (Overall)
1.49
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
1.53
Rank: 13 (Overall)
1.76
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.52
Rank: 27 (Overall)
1.66
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.31
Rank: 37 (Overall)
2.22
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
867.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
558.30 kJ/mol
Rank: 69 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,631.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
1,820.70 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
3,616.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 13 (Overall)
2,704.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
5,210.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
2.10 g/amp-hr
Rank: 27 (Overall)
1.43 g/amp-hr
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
4.22 eV
Rank: 22 (Overall)
4.12 eV
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Radioactivity, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
48
Rank: 64 (Overall)
49
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d10 5s2
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
6.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
Tetragonal (TETR)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
48
Rank: 63 (Overall)
49
Rank: 62 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
64
Rank: 46 (Overall)
66
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
48
Rank: 63 (Overall)
49
Rank: 62 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
151.00 pm
Rank: 32 (Overall)
167.00 pm
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
144.00 pm
Rank: 40 (Overall)
142.00 pm
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
158.00 pm
Rank: 41 (Overall)
193.00 pm
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
112.41 amu
Rank: 58 (Overall)
114.82 amu
Rank: 57 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
13.10 cm3/mol
Rank: 39 (Overall)
15.70 cm3/mol
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
30.00 (-eV)
Rank: 52 (Overall)
54.00 (-eV)
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
297.94 pm
Rank: 60 (Overall)
325.23 pm
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, π/2
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
1.89
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
8.65 g/cm3
Rank: 47 (Overall)
7.31 g/cm3
Rank: 55 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
8.00 g/cm3
Rank: 28 (Overall)
7.02 g/cm3
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
62.00 MPa
Rank: 16 (Overall)
2.50 MPa
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.01 (Pa)
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
19.00 GPa
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
42.00 GPa
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
50.00 GPa
Rank: 36 (Overall)
11.00 GPa
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.30
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable
Ductile, Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
8.65
Rank: 36 (Overall)
7.31
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
Diamagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Semiconductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
72.70 nΩ·m
Rank: 36 (Overall)
83.70 nΩ·m
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.14 106/cm Ω
Rank: 15 (Overall)
0.12 106/cm Ω
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
0.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
28.90 kJ/mol
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.23 J/(kg K)
Rank: 26 (Overall)
0.23 J/(kg K)
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
26.02 J/mol·K
Rank: 32 (Overall)
26.74 J/mol·K
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
96.60 W/m·K
Rank: 16 (Overall)
81.80 W/m·K
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
30.80 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 10 (Overall)
32.10 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
100.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 53 (Overall)
226.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
6.19 kJ/mol
Rank: 50 (Overall)
3.28 kJ/mol
Rank: 55 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
113.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 56 (Overall)
242.70 kJ/mol
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
51.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 27 (Overall)
57.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Beryllium
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