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Chromium
Chromium

Cadmium
Cadmium



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Chromium
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Cadmium

Chromium Cadmium Comparison

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Cr
Cd
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine Metal
6
Rank: 12 (Overall)
12
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Gadolinium Metal
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium Metal
4
Rank: 4 (Overall)
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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1.4 Block
d block
d block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Transition Metal
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium Met..
7440473
Rank: 39 (Overall)
7440439
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Aluminium Metal
1.7 Space Group Name
Im_ 3m
P63/mmc
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium Metal
229.00
Rank: 1 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium Metal
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Chromium is highly reactive, hence it is not found free in nature.
  • Ores of Chromites mineral are the major source of Chromium metal.
  • Almost 90% leather tanning is done with the help of chromium.
  • Naturally occurring minor elements include Cadmium.
  • Cadmium is released into atmosphere to control volcanic eruption and forest fires.
  • It is used for electroplating of Steel for corrosion resistance.
  • It can absorb neutrons and used in nuclear reactor to control atomic fission.
2.2 Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of metals, Ores of Minerals
Found As a By-product, Found in Minerals, Mining
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer
2.3.2 Discovery
In Between 1797 - 1798
In 1817
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron Metal
1.5 * 10-3 %
Rank: 7 (Overall)
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Thallium Metal
2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron Metal
~0.002 %
Rank: 7 (Overall)
~0.0000006 %
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron Metal
0.30 %
Rank: 7 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Gold Metal
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium Metal
0.01 %
Rank: 13 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 46 (Overall)
Radium Metal
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium Metal
0.00 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Protactinium Metal
2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium Metal
0.00 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Radium Metal
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • It is used to harden the steel and produces a stainless steel and other various alloys.
  • It is also used to give proper finish to polished mirrors. Its chromium plates are used in bathroom fittings.
  • It has very limited uses as it is a toxic metal and it can cause birth defects, cancer, etc.
  • Almost 80% of Cadmium metal is used in Nickel cadmium Batteries and now it is getting replaced with nickel hydride.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry
Aerospace Industry, Ammunition Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Highly Toxic
Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium Metal
0.11 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 12 (Overall)
0.01 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Plutonium Metal
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium Metal
0.33 p.p.m.
Rank: 21 (Overall)
1.80 p.p.m.
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Plutonium Metal
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten Metal
1,857.00 °C
Rank: 14 (Overall)
320.90 °C
Rank: 68 (Overall)
Francium Metal
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten Metal
2,672.00 °C
Rank: 39 (Overall)
765.00 °C
Rank: 73 (Overall)
Flerovium Metal
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silver
Silvery Bluish-Gray
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Metallic
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium Metal
8.50
Rank: 1 (Overall)
2.00
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium Metal
687.00 MPa
Rank: 16 (Overall)
203.00 MPa
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten Metal
1,060.00 MPa
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium Metal
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium Metal
5,940.00 m/s
Rank: 5 (Overall)
2,310.00 m/s
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Thallium Metal
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury Metal
4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
67.00 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Cr
Cd
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium Metal
21
Rank: 18 (Overall)
34
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Tennessine Metal
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold Metal
1.66
Rank: 18 (Overall)
1.69
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Francium Metal
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt Metal
1.66
Rank: 14 (Overall)
1.98
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium Metal
1.56
Rank: 10 (Overall)
1.46
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.53
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium Metal
1.65
Rank: 19 (Overall)
1.52
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium Metal
2.34
Rank: 36 (Overall)
2.31
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Gold Metal
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium Metal
26,130.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
867.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium Metal
28,750.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
1,631.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Ruthenium Metal
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium Metal
34,230.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
3,616.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Osmium Metal
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
37,066.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thorium Metal
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
97,510.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium Metal
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
105,800.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium Metal
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium Metal
114,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium Metal
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
125,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium Metal
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
134,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium Metal
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
144,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium Metal
5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium Metal
26,130.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium Metal
5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium Metal
28,750.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium Metal
34,230.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium Metal
37,066.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium Metal
97,510.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese Metal
5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese Metal
105,800.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron Metal
5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron Metal
114,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt Metal
5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt Metal
125,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel Metal
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel Metal
134,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper Metal
5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc Metal
144,300.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc Metal
157,700.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper Metal
166,090.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 6 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper Metal
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron Metal
Not Available
Rank: 100 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum Metal
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium Metal
0.32 g/amp-hr
Rank: 73 (Overall)
2.10 g/amp-hr
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum Metal
4.50 eV
Rank: 14 (Overall)
4.22 eV
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Anti Corrosion, Chemical Stability, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Chemical Stability, Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine Metal
24
Rank: 82 (Overall)
48
Rank: 64 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Ar] 3d5 4s1
[Kr] 4d10 5s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Body Centered Cubic (BCC)
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine Metal
24
Rank: 81 (Overall)
48
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium Metal
28
Rank: 61 (Overall)
64
Rank: 46 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine Metal
24
Rank: 81 (Overall)
48
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium Metal
128.00 pm
Rank: 46 (Overall)
151.00 pm
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium Metal
139.00 pm
Rank: 45 (Overall)
144.00 pm
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium Metal
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
158.00 pm
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Zinc Metal
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine Metal
52.00 amu
Rank: 76 (Overall)
112.41 amu
Rank: 58 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium Metal
7.23 cm3/mol
Rank: 60 (Overall)
13.10 cm3/mol
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Manganese Metal
6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum Metal
170.00 (-eV)
Rank: 4 (Overall)
30.00 (-eV)
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Francium Metal
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese Metal
291.00 pm
Rank: 62 (Overall)
297.94 pm
Rank: 60 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
1.89
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium Metal
7.19 g/cm3
Rank: 58 (Overall)
8.65 g/cm3
Rank: 47 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium Metal
6.30 g/cm3
Rank: 40 (Overall)
8.00 g/cm3
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron Metal
689.00 MPa
Rank: 7 (Overall)
62.00 MPa
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Indium Metal
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury Metal
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium Metal
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium Metal
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium Metal
774.00 (Pa)
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten Metal
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium Metal
115.00 GPa
Rank: 9 (Overall)
19.00 GPa
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Potassium Metal
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium Metal
160.00 GPa
Rank: 11 (Overall)
42.00 GPa
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium Metal
279.00 GPa
Rank: 8 (Overall)
50.00 GPa
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium Metal
0.21
Rank: 32 (Overall)
0.30
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
NA
Ductile, Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt Metal
7.19
Rank: 46 (Overall)
8.65
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Lithium Metal
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Antiferromagnetic
Diamagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth Metal
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth Metal
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
NA
Semiconductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury Metal
125.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 27 (Overall)
72.70 nΩ·m
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Thallium Metal
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver Metal
0.08 106/cm Ω
Rank: 25 (Overall)
0.14 106/cm Ω
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Plutonium Metal
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold Metal
64.30 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
0.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Mercury Metal
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium Metal
0.45 J/(kg K)
Rank: 12 (Overall)
0.23 J/(kg K)
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Americium Metal
9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium Metal
23.35 J/mol·K
Rank: 55 (Overall)
26.02 J/mol·K
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver Metal
93.90 W/m·K
Rank: 17 (Overall)
96.60 W/m·K
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Neptunium Metal
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium Metal
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium Metal
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium Metal
4.90 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 57 (Overall)
30.80 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 10 (Overall)
Tungsten Metal
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten Metal
348.80 kJ/mol
Rank: 24 (Overall)
100.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 53 (Overall)
Zinc Metal
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten Metal
15.31 kJ/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
6.19 kJ/mol
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Cesium Metal
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten Metal
397.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
113.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Mercury Metal
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium Me..
23.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 57 (Overall)
51.80 J/mol.K
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Beryllium Metal
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