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Palladium
Palladium

Rutherfordium
Rutherfordium



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Rutherfordium

Palladium vs Rutherfordium

1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Pd
Rf
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
10
Rank: 8 (Overall)
4
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
7
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
d block
d block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Transition Metal
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440053
Rank: 74 (Overall)
53850365
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
Fm_ 3m
Not Available
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
225.00
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Palladium alloys are used for Jewelry contains (95% Palladium and 5% Ruthenium)
  • In the late 1800s, Palladium metal used have more economical value than the Platinum metal.
  • Palladium element is known as a good catalyst
  • Rutherfordium does not occur in nature as it is a synthetic element.
  • Till date Rutherfordium metal has 15 radioisotopes created synthetically.
2.2 Sources
Ores of metals
Bombarding Plutonium with Accelerated 113 to 115 MeV Neon Ions, Synthetically Produced
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
William Hyde Wollaston
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1803
In 1964
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
2 * 10-7 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000003 %
Rank: 24 (Overall)
~-9999 %
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 48 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Mostly palladium metal is used in catalytic converters. In electronic industry it is used in ceramic capacitors of mobile and computer.
  • It is used in jewellery and dental fillings and crowns.
  • Currently known uses of Rutherfordium metal are limited to research purpose only.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Electronic Industry
NA
3.1.2 Medical Uses
Dentistry, Pharmaceutical Industry, Surgical Instruments Manufacturing
NA
3.1.3 Other Uses
Coinage, Bullion, Jewellery
Alloys, Research Purposes
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Toxic
Unknown
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 37 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
1,554.90 °C
Rank: 22 (Overall)
2,100.00 °C
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
2,963.00 °C
Rank: 33 (Overall)
5,500.00 °C
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silver
Unknown
4.3.3 Luster
Metallic
Unknown Luster
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
4.75
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
320.00 MPa
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
121.00 MPa
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
3,070.00 m/s
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
1.72
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
84.00 %
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Pd
Rf
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
38
Rank: 1 (Overall)
13
Rank: 26 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
2.20
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.35
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.59
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
1.80
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
520.23 kJ/mol
Rank: 80 (Overall)
579.90 kJ/mol
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
7,298.22 kJ/mol
Rank: 2 (Overall)
1,389.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
11,815.13 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
2,296.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
3,077.90 kJ/mol
Rank: 65 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.99 g/amp-hr
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
5.12 eV
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Corrosion, Ionization, Solubility
Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Radioactivity
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
46
Rank: 66 (Overall)
104
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d10
[Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
46
Rank: 65 (Overall)
104
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
60
Rank: 48 (Overall)
157
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
46
Rank: 65 (Overall)
104
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
137.00 pm
Rank: 40 (Overall)
150.00 pm
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
139.00 pm
Rank: 45 (Overall)
157.00 pm
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
163.00 pm
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
106.42 amu
Rank: 60 (Overall)
267.00 amu
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
8.90 cm3/mol
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
33.00 (-eV)
Rank: 51 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
389.07 pm
Rank: 25 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, π/2
NA
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
12.02 g/cm3
Rank: 29 (Overall)
23.20 g/cm3
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
10.38 g/cm3
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
44.00 GPa
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
180.00 GPa
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
121.00 GPa
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.39
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile, Malleable, Weldable
Unknown
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
12.02
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
Unknown
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
ADD ⊕
8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Unknown
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
105.40 nΩ·m
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.10 106/cm Ω
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
54.23 kJ/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.24 J/(kg K)
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
25.98 J/mol·K
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
71.80 W/m·K
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
11.80 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
376.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
16.74 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
393.30 kJ/mol
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
37.60 J/mol.K
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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