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Magnesium
Magnesium

Thorium
Thorium



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Magnesium
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Magnesium vs Thorium

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Mg
Th
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
2
Rank: 16 (Overall)
0
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
3
Rank: 5 (Overall)
7
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
s block
f block
1.5 Element Family
Alkaline Earth
Actinide
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7439954
Rank: 83 (Overall)
7440326
Rank: 49 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
P63/mmc
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Magnesium ions are present in every chlorophyll of every green plant .
  • Controlling Magnesium fire by pouring water on it will result in explosions.
  • Thorium metal is used as an alternate option over Uranium for nuclear fuel.
  • Thorium metals appearance (silvery white, soft) is somewhat similar to Lead metal.
2.2 Sources
By Electrolysis Process, In Ocean, Mining
Found in Minerals, Mining
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Joseph Black
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1755
In 1829
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
6 * 10-2 %
Rank: 2 (Overall)
3 * 10-4 %
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.07 %
Rank: 2 (Overall)
~0.0004 %
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
12.00 %
Rank: 2 (Overall)
0.05 %
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
2.90 %
Rank: 4 (Overall)
0.66 %
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.13 %
Rank: 2 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
0.03 %
Rank: 4 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Magnesium aluminum alloy improves the mechanical strength and welding characteristics and hence it is used in aeroplane and car manufacturing.
  • It is also used to remove sulfur from the molten iron and steel.
  • Thorium metal is used as an allying agent for Magnesium, It imparts greater strength and resistance to temperature.
  • compound of this metal Thorium oxide is used as an industrial catalyst.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Aerospace Industry, Ammunition Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Pharmaceutical Industry
Aerospace Industry, Automobile Industry, Chemical Industry, Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
Dentistry, Surgical Instruments Manufacturing
3.1.3 Other Uses
Surgical Instruments Manufacturing
Alloys, Jewellery, Sculptures, Statues
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Non Toxic
Non Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
83% Alkaline Earth Metals Metals have it !
7% Actinide Series Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
37.80 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 5 (Overall)
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
1,800.00 p.p.m.
Rank: 4 (Overall)
0.02 p.p.m.
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
650.00 °C
Rank: 61 (Overall)
1,750.00 °C
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
1,107.00 °C
Rank: 66 (Overall)
4,790.00 °C
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Gray
Silver
4.3.3 Luster
NA
NA
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
2.50
Rank: 14 (Overall)
3.00
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
260.00 MPa
Rank: 36 (Overall)
390.00 MPa
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
295.00 MPa
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
4,940.00 m/s
Rank: 11 (Overall)
2,490.00 m/s
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
74.00 %
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
No Alkaline Earth Metals Metals has it !
No Actinide Series Metals has it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Mg
Th
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
15
Rank: 24 (Overall)
28
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.31
Rank: 31 (Overall)
1.30
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
1.32
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.23
Rank: 25 (Overall)
1.11
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
1.37
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.29
Rank: 35 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.69
Rank: 23 (Overall)
2.70
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
737.70 kJ/mol
Rank: 24 (Overall)
587.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 60 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,450.70 kJ/mol
Rank: 42 (Overall)
1,110.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 73 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
7,732.70 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
1,978.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 77 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
10,542.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 4 (Overall)
2,780.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 67 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
13,630.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
18,020.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
21,711.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
25,661.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
31,653.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
35,458.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
169,988.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
189,368.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 1 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
0.45 g/amp-hr
Rank: 69 (Overall)
2.16 g/amp-hr
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
3.66 eV
Rank: 29 (Overall)
3.41 eV
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Corrosion, Highly Inflammable, Ionization, Solubility
Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Radioactivity
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
12
Rank: 89 (Overall)
90
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Ne] 3s2
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
12
Rank: 88 (Overall)
90
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
12
Rank: 66 (Overall)
142
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
12
Rank: 88 (Overall)
90
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
160.00 pm
Rank: 27 (Overall)
179.80 pm
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
141.00 pm
Rank: 43 (Overall)
206.00 pm
Rank: 7 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
173.00 pm
Rank: 37 (Overall)
237.00 pm
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
24.31 amu
Rank: 83 (Overall)
232.04 amu
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
13.97 cm3/mol
Rank: 37 (Overall)
19.90 cm3/mol
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
40.00 (-eV)
Rank: 47 (Overall)
59.30 (-eV)
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
320.94 pm
Rank: 54 (Overall)
508.42 pm
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, π/2
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
1.74 g/cm3
Rank: 79 (Overall)
11.72 g/cm3
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
1.58 g/cm3
Rank: 55 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
17.00 GPa
Rank: 37 (Overall)
31.00 GPa
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
45.00 GPa
Rank: 25 (Overall)
54.00 GPa
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
45.00 GPa
Rank: 39 (Overall)
79.00 GPa
Rank: 24 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.29
Rank: 15 (Overall)
0.27
Rank: 20 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
NA
Ductile
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
1.74
Rank: 66 (Overall)
11.70
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Paramagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Superconductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
43.90 nΩ·m
Rank: 45 (Overall)
157.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.23 106/cm Ω
Rank: 7 (Overall)
0.07 106/cm Ω
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
0.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
1.02 J/(kg K)
Rank: 4 (Overall)
0.12 J/(kg K)
Rank: 40 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
24.87 J/mol·K
Rank: 47 (Overall)
26.23 J/mol·K
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
156.00 W/m·K
Rank: 8 (Overall)
54.00 W/m·K
Rank: 28 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
24.80 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 15 (Overall)
11.00 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 36 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
128.70 kJ/mol
Rank: 52 (Overall)
429.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
8.95 kJ/mol
Rank: 39 (Overall)
15.48 kJ/mol
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
148.50 kJ/mol
Rank: 53 (Overall)
468.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
32.70 J/mol.K
Rank: 46 (Overall)
27.30 J/mol.K
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Beryllium
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