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Yttrium
Yttrium

Cerium
Cerium



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Yttrium
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Cerium

Yttrium vs Cerium

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1 Periodic Table
1.1 Symbol
Y
Ce
1.2 Group Number
Tennessine
3
Rank: 15 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Gadolinium
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1.3 Period Number
Uranium
5
Rank: 3 (Overall)
6
Rank: 2 (Overall)
Lithium
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1.4 Block
d block
f block
1.5 Element Family
Transition Metal
Lanthanide
1.6 CAS Number
Roentgenium
7440655
Rank: 25 (Overall)
7440451
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Aluminium
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1.7 Space Group Name
P63/mmc
P63/mmc
1.8 Space Group Number
Sodium
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
194.00
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Plutonium
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2 Facts
2.1 Interesting Facts
  • Yttrium Metal is highly toxic.
  • Yttrium Metal is highly reactive in nature hence not found free in nature.
  • Cerium is a rare earth metal but still it is not rare at all.
  • It’s non-toxic compound Cerium sulfide has a rich red color and it is used as a pigment.
  • Cerium metal is also used in Flat screen TVs, light bulb, floodlights, etc.
2.2 Sources
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
Found in Minerals, Mining, Ores of Minerals
2.3 History
2.3.1 Who Discovered
Johan Gadolin
Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger
2.3.2 Discovery
In 1794
In 1803
2.4 Abundance
2.4.1 Abundance In Universe
Iron
7 * 10-7 %
Rank: 17 (Overall)
1 * 10-6 %
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Thallium
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2.4.2 Abundance In Sun
Iron
~0.0000001 %
Rank: 26 (Overall)
~0.0000004 %
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Beryllium
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2.4.3 Abundance In Meteorites
Iron
0.00 %
Rank: 21 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Gold
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2.4.4 Abundance In Earth's Crust
Aluminium
0.00 %
Rank: 22 (Overall)
0.01 %
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Radium
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2.4.5 Abundance In Oceans
Sodium
0.00 %
Rank: 25 (Overall)
0.00 %
Rank: 33 (Overall)
Protactinium
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2.4.6 Abundance In Humans
Calcium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Radium
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3 Uses
3.1 Uses & Benefits
  • Yttrium metal is used in different alloys, as it increases the strength of aluminum Magnesium alloy. It is used for radar microwave filter.
  • It is also used as a catalyst in ethene polymerisation.
  • It is used to include flints for cigarette lighters.
  • Its compound Cerium (Ill) Oxide is used as a catalyst; it is put inside the walls of the oven as it prevents from the buildup of cooking residues.
3.1.1 Industrial Uses
Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry
Chemical Industry
3.1.2 Medical Uses
NA
Medical Research
3.1.3 Other Uses
Alloys
Alloys
3.2 Biological Properties
3.2.1 Toxicity
Highly Toxic
Moderately Toxic
3.2.2 Present in Human Body
60% Transition Metals Metals have it !
27% Lanthanide Series Metals have it !
3.2.3 In Blood
Sodium
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 26 (Overall)
0.00 Blood/mg dm-3
Rank: 30 (Overall)
Plutonium
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3.2.4 In Bone
Calcium
0.07 p.p.m.
Rank: 25 (Overall)
2.70 p.p.m.
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Plutonium
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4 Physical
4.1 Melting Point
Tungsten
1,523.00 °C
Rank: 27 (Overall)
795.00 °C
Rank: 56 (Overall)
Francium
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4.2 Boiling Point
Tungsten
3,337.00 °C
Rank: 21 (Overall)
3,257.00 °C
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Flerovium
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4.3 Appearance
4.3.1 Physical State
Solid
Solid
4.3.2 Color
Silvery White
Silvery White
4.3.3 Luster
NA
Lustrous
4.4 Hardness
4.4.1 Mohs Hardness
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
2.50
Rank: 14 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.2 Brinell Hardness
Osmium
589.00 MPa
Rank: 22 (Overall)
186.00 MPa
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Cesium
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4.4.3 Vickers Hardness
Tungsten
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
210.00 MPa
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Palladium
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4.5 Speed of Sound
Technetium
3,300.00 m/s
Rank: 23 (Overall)
2,100.00 m/s
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Thallium
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4.6 Optical Properties
4.6.1 Refractive Index
Palladium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
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4.6.2 Reflectivity
Silver
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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4.7 Allotropes
6% Transition Metals Metals have it !
No Lanthanide Series Metals has it !
4.7.1 α Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.2 β Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
4.7.3 γ Allotropes
Not Available
Not Available
5 Chemical
5.1 Chemical Formula
Y
Ce
5.2 Isotopes
5.2.1 Known Isotopes
Palladium
19
Rank: 20 (Overall)
30
Rank: 9 (Overall)
Tennessine
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5.3 Electronegativity
5.3.1 Pauling Electronegativity
Gold
1.22
Rank: 38 (Overall)
1.12
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Francium
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5.3.2 Sanderson Electronegativity
Cobalt
0.65
Rank: 29 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.3 Allred Rochow Electronegativity
Gallium
1.11
Rank: 29 (Overall)
1.08
Rank: 31 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.4 Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
Polonium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.3.5 Allen Electronegativity
Berkelium
1.12
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cesium
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5.4 Electropositivity
5.4.1 Pauling Electropositivity
Francium
2.78
Rank: 16 (Overall)
2.88
Rank: 11 (Overall)
Gold
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5.5 Ionization Energies
5.5.1 1st Energy Level
Chromium
600.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 53 (Overall)
534.40 kJ/mol
Rank: 76 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.5.2 2nd Energy Level
Chromium
1,180.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 63 (Overall)
1,050.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 78 (Overall)
Ruthenium
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5.5.3 3rd Energy Level
Chromium
1,980.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 76 (Overall)
1,949.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 78 (Overall)
Osmium
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5.5.4 4th Energy Level
Chromium
5,847.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 10 (Overall)
3,547.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 55 (Overall)
Thorium
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5.5.5 5th Energy Level
Chromium
7,430.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 14 (Overall)
6,325.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 22 (Overall)
Dubnium
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5.5.6 6th Energy Level
Chromium
8,970.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
7,490.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Seaborgium
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5.5.7 7th Energy level
Chromium
11,190.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bohrium
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5.5.8 8th Energy Level
Chromium
12,450.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Hassium
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5.5.9 9th Energy Level
Chromium
14,110.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 19 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.10 10th Energy Level
Chromium
18,400.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Strontium
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5.5.11 11th Energy Level
Magnesium
19,900.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Yttrium
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5.5.12 12th Energy Level
Magnesium
36,090.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 5 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.13 13th Energy Level
Titanium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.14 14th Energy Level
Vanadium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.15 15th Energy Level
Chromium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Manganese
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5.5.16 16th Energy Level
Manganese
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Iron
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5.5.17 17th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Cobalt
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5.5.18 18th Energy Level
Cobalt
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Nickel
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5.5.19 19th Energy Level
Nickel
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Copper
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5.5.20 20th Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.21 21st Energy Level
Zinc
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.22 22nd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.23 23rd Energy Level
Copper
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.24 24th Energy Level
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
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5.5.25 25th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.26 26th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.27 27th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.28 28th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.29 29th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.5.30 30th Energy Level
Molybdenum
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Molybdenum
5.6 Electrochemical Equivalent
Francium
1.11 g/amp-hr
Rank: 56 (Overall)
1.74 g/amp-hr
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Beryllium
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5.7 Electron Work Function
Platinum
3.10 eV
Rank: 35 (Overall)
2.84 eV
Rank: 39 (Overall)
Cesium
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5.8 Other Chemical Properties
Chemical Stability, Flammable, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
Chemical Stability, Anti Corrosion, Ionization, Radioactive Isotopes, Solubility
6 Atomic
6.1 Atomic Number
Tennessine
39
Rank: 73 (Overall)
58
Rank: 58 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.2 Electron Configuration
[Kr] 4d1 5s2
[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
6.3 Crystal Structure
Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP)
Double Hexagonal Close Packed (DHCP)
6.3.1 Crystal Lattice
6.4 Atom
6.4.1 Number of Protons
Tennessine
39
Rank: 72 (Overall)
58
Rank: 57 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.2 Number of Neutrons
Flerovium
50
Rank: 55 (Overall)
82
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.4.3 Number of Electrons
Tennessine
39
Rank: 72 (Overall)
58
Rank: 57 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.5 Radius of an Atom
6.5.1 Atomic Radius
Cesium
180.00 pm
Rank: 14 (Overall)
181.80 pm
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.2 Covalent Radius
Francium
190.00 pm
Rank: 18 (Overall)
204.00 pm
Rank: 8 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.5.3 Van der Waals Radius
Francium
200.00 pm
Rank: 28 (Overall)
235.00 pm
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Zinc
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6.6 Atomic Weight
Tennessine
88.91 amu
Rank: 67 (Overall)
140.12 amu
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Lithium
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6.7 Atomic Volume
Cesium
19.80 cm3/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
20.67 cm3/mol
Rank: 17 (Overall)
Manganese
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6.8 Adjacent Atomic Numbers
6.8.1 Previous Element
6.8.2 Next Element
6.9 Valence Electron Potential
Platinum
48.00 (-eV)
Rank: 30 (Overall)
41.78 (-eV)
Rank: 45 (Overall)
Francium
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6.10 Lattice Constant
Manganese
364.74 pm
Rank: 31 (Overall)
362.00 pm
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Beryllium
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6.11 Lattice Angles
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
6.12 Lattice C/A Ratio
Cadmium
1.57
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Beryllium
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7 Mechanical
7.1 Density
7.1.1 Density At Room Temperature
Hassium
4.47 g/cm3
Rank: 71 (Overall)
6.77 g/cm3
Rank: 63 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.1.2 Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Osmium
4.24 g/cm3
Rank: 48 (Overall)
6.55 g/cm3
Rank: 38 (Overall)
Lithium
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7.2 Tensile Strength
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Indium
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7.3 Viscosity
Mercury
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Mercury
7.4 Vapor Pressure
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Strontium
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 32 (Overall)
0.00 (Pa)
Rank: 34 (Overall)
Cerium
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7.4.2 Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Chromium
4.27 (Pa)
Rank: 10 (Overall)
1.04 (Pa)
Rank: 13 (Overall)
Tungsten
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7.5 Elasticity properties
7.5.1 Shear Modulus
Osmium
25.60 GPa
Rank: 30 (Overall)
13.50 GPa
Rank: 41 (Overall)
Potassium
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7.5.2 Bulk Modulus
Osmium
41.20 GPa
Rank: 30 (Overall)
21.50 GPa
Rank: 42 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.5.3 Young's Modulus
Iridium
63.50 GPa
Rank: 32 (Overall)
33.60 GPa
Rank: 43 (Overall)
Cesium
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7.6 Poisson Ratio
Gallium
0.24
Rank: 26 (Overall)
0.24
Rank: 27 (Overall)
Beryllium
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7.7 Other Mechanical Properties
Ductile
Ductile, Malleable
8 Magnetic
8.1 Magnetic Characteristics
8.1.1 Specific Gravity
Cobalt
4.47
Rank: 59 (Overall)
6.77
Rank: 50 (Overall)
Lithium
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8.1.2 Magnetic Ordering
Paramagnetic
Paramagnetic
8.1.3 Permeability
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.1.4 Susceptibility
Iron
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Bismuth
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8.2 Electrical Properties
8.2.1 Electrical Property
Conductor
Conductor
8.2.2 Resistivity
Mercury
596.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 8 (Overall)
828.00 nΩ·m
Rank: 3 (Overall)
Thallium
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8.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
Silver
0.02 106/cm Ω
Rank: 47 (Overall)
0.01 106/cm Ω
Rank: 54 (Overall)
Plutonium
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8.2.4 Electron Affinity
Gold
29.60 kJ/mol
Rank: 30 (Overall)
50.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 21 (Overall)
Mercury
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9 Thermal
9.1 Specific Heat
Lithium
0.30 J/(kg K)
Rank: 18 (Overall)
0.19 J/(kg K)
Rank: 32 (Overall)
Americium
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9.2 Molar Heat Capacity
Americium
26.53 J/mol·K
Rank: 27 (Overall)
26.94 J/mol·K
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Beryllium
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9.3 Thermal Conductivity
Silver
17.20 W/m·K
Rank: 48 (Overall)
11.30 W/m·K
Rank: 61 (Overall)
Neptunium
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9.4 Critical Temperature
Lithium
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Not Available
Rank: N/A (Overall)
Ytterbium
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9.5 Thermal Expansion
Cesium
10.60 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 37 (Overall)
6.30 µm/(m·K)
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Tungsten
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9.6 Enthalpy
9.6.1 Enthalpy of Vaporization
Tungsten
393.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
414.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 16 (Overall)
Zinc
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9.6.2 Enthalpy of Fusion
Tungsten
17.15 kJ/mol
Rank: 16 (Overall)
5.46 kJ/mol
Rank: 52 (Overall)
Cesium
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9.6.3 Enthalpy of Atomization
Tungsten
418.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 18 (Overall)
381.00 kJ/mol
Rank: 23 (Overall)
Mercury
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9.7 Standard Molar Entropy
Protactinium
44.40 J/mol.K
Rank: 33 (Overall)
72.00 J/mol.K
Rank: 12 (Overall)
Beryllium
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