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What is Mercury?

All Metals

Nihonium
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Moscovium
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Tennessine
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Mercury In Periodic Table

Symbol
Hg

Group Number
12
6
📊

Period Number
6
📊

Block
d block
📊

Element Family
Transition Metal
📊

CAS Number
7439976
81

Space Group Name
R_ 3m

Space Group Number
166.00
6
📊

Facts about Mercury

Interesting Facts
  • At room temperature mercury is found in a liquid state.
  • A coin of pound or rupees floats in mercury.
  • Because of its low melting point and boiling point it is used in thermometers.

Sources
Mining, Ores of Minerals

History of Mercury

Who Discovered
Ancient Chinese and Indians

Discovery
Before 2000 BCE

Abundance of Mercury

Abundance In Universe
Not Available
📊

Abundance In Sun
125.00 %
📊

Abundance In Meteorites
Not Available
📊

Abundance In Earth's Crust
0.05 %
📊

Abundance In Oceans
Not Available
📊

Abundance In Humans
Not Available
📊

Uses of Mercury

Uses & Benefits
  • It is a liquid metal at room temperature, but it is a toxic heavy metal and hence many uses of mercury are under review or phased out.
  • It is manly used as a catalysts in chemical industry.

Industrial Uses
Electrical Industry, Electronic Industry

Medical Uses
Dentistry

Other Uses
Alloys, Mirror Manufacturing, Pharmaceutical Industry

Biological Properties

Toxicity
Highly Toxic
📊

Present in Human Body
📊

In Blood
0.01 Blood/mg dm-3

In Bone
0.45 p.p.m.

Physical Properties of Mercury

Melting Point
-38.87 °C
82
📊

Boiling Point
356.58 °C
78
📊

Appearance of Mercury

Physical State
Liquid
📊

Color
Silver

Luster
NA
📊

Hardness of Mercury

Mohs Hardness
Not Available
📊

Brinell Hardness
Not Available
📊

Vickers Hardness
Not Available
📊

Speed of Sound
1,451.40 m/s
49
📊

Optical Properties

Refractive Index
1.00
📊

Reflectivity
73.00 %
📊

Allotropes

α Allotropes
Not Available

β Allotropes
Not Available

γ Allotropes
Not Available

Chemical Properties of Mercury

Chemical Formula
Hg

Isotopes of Mercury

Known Isotopes
34
📊

Electronegativity

Pauling Electronegativity
2.00
📊

Sanderson Electronegativity
2.20
📊

Allred Rochow Electronegativity
1.44
📊

Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity
1.81
📊

Allen Electronegativity
1.44
📊

Electropositivity

Pauling Electropositivity
2.00
📊

Ionization Energies

1st Energy Level
1,007.10 kJ/mol
📊

2nd Energy Level
1,810.00 kJ/mol
📊

3rd Energy Level
3,300.00 kJ/mol
📊

4th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

5th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

6th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

7th Energy level
Not Available
📊

8th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

9th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

10th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

11th Energy Level
Not Available

12th Energy Level
Not Available

13th Energy Level
Not Available

14th Energy Level
Not Available

15th Energy Level
Not Available

16th Energy Level
Not Available

17th Energy Level
Not Available

18th Energy Level
Not Available
📊

19th Energy Level
Not Available

20th Energy Level
Not Available

21st Energy Level
Not Available

22nd Energy Level
Not Available

23rd Energy Level
Not Available

24th Energy Level
Not Available

25th Energy Level
Not Available

26th Energy Level
Not Available

27th Energy Level
Not Available

28th Energy Level
Not Available

29th Energy Level
Not Available

30th Energy Level
Not Available

Electrochemical Equivalent
3.74 g/amp-hr
10
📊

Electron Work Function
4.49 eV
15
📊

Other Chemical Properties
Flammability, Ionization, Solubility

Atomic Properties of Mercury

Atomic Number
80
36
📊

Electron Configuration
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2

Crystal Structure
Rhombohedral (RHO)
📊

Crystal Lattice
RHO-Crystal-Structure-of-Mercury.jpg#100

Atom of Mercury

Number of Protons
80
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Number of Neutrons
121
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Number of Electrons
80
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Radius of an Atom

Atomic Radius
151.00 pm
📊

Covalent Radius
132.00 pm
📊

Van der Waals Radius
155.00 pm
📊

Atomic Weight
200.59 amu
32
📊

Atomic Volume
14.82 cm3/mol
35
📊

Adjacent Atomic Numbers

Previous Element

Next Element

Valence Electron Potential
28.20 (-eV)
54
📊

Lattice Constant
300.50 pm
59
📊

Lattice Angles
NA

Lattice C/A Ratio
Not Available
📊

Mechanical Properties of Mercury

Density of Mercury

Density At Room Temperature
13.53 g/cm3
📊

Density When Liquid (at m.p.)
Not Available
📊

Tensile Strength
Not Available
📊

Viscosity
0.00
1
📊

Vapor Pressure of Mercury

Vapor Pressure at 1000 K
Not Available
📊

Vapor Pressure at 2000 K
Not Available
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Elasticity properties

Shear Modulus
Not Available
📊

Bulk Modulus
Not Available
📊

Young's Modulus
Not Available
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Poisson Ratio
Not Available
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Other Mechanical Properties
NA

Magnetic Properties of Mercury

Magnetic Characteristics of Mercury

Specific Gravity
13.53
📊

Magnetic Ordering
Diamagnetic
📊

Permeability
Not Available
📊

Susceptibility
Not Available
📊

Electrical Properties

Electrical Property
Conductor
📊

Resistivity
961.00 nΩ·m
📊

Electrical Conductivity
0.01 106/cm Ω
📊

Electron Affinity
0.00 kJ/mol
📊

Thermal Properties of Mercury

Specific Heat
0.14 J/(kg K)
38
📊

Molar Heat Capacity
27.98 J/mol·K
13
📊

Thermal Conductivity
8.30 W/m·K
66
📊

Critical Temperature
1,750.00 K
6

Thermal Expansion
60.40 µm/(m·K)
5
📊

Enthalpy of Mercury

Enthalpy of Vaporization
56.90 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Fusion
2.29 kJ/mol
📊

Enthalpy of Atomization
61.50 kJ/mol
📊

Standard Molar Entropy
75.80 J/mol.K
6
📊

Mercury Metal

Metals have been an inseparable component of major civilizations since centuries. Although metals were utilized since time unknown, researchers put considerable efforts in giving them appropriate names and defining their different properties and characteristics. This nomenclature process helped in arranging these metals in a well-organized fashion, known as the periodic table. In this periodic table, Mercury metal is also represented by the symbol Hg. This atomic symbol of Mercury is useful in indicating the position of metal Hg in the periodic table. If you are curious-headed or a science-geek, the common questions about metals are What is Mercury? What are its physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties? Find all the relevant facts about Hg metals in the following sections.

Periodic Table of Mercury

Periodic table of Mercury comments over its position in the periodic table, on the basis of parameters like group number, period row, atomic number and orbital block. The metals which have electrons falling in the same sub-shell are grouped under the same block corresponding to its respective orbital. Mercury metal belongs to Transition Metals category of the periodic table. Metals down a group have same valency while metals across a period have the same number of shells. Its group number (column number) is 12, whereas its period number is 6. It is placed under d block of the periodic table & is one of the prominent d block elements.

Mercury Metal Properties

Metals have certain properties by which they can be distinguished from one another. Magnetic and Atomic Structure of Mercury are few widely searched properties. Using the comparison facility, you can not only view the individual metal properties, but also compare the properties of multiple metals to get a thorough comparative analysis between the metals of your choice. Atomic number is a basic building block for the arrangement of metals in the periodic table. Atomic number of Mercury is 80 and its atomic weight is 200.59 amu. The electrons in its atom are arranged in orbitals as [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2. Nuclear particles in Mercury atom are 121 neutrons, 80 protons and 80 electrons.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Mercury

Physical and chemical characteristics of Mercury are two major criteria while comparing this metal with other metals. Physical Properties of Mercury include its external appearance, shininess at surface, color, etc. Properties like density, viscosity, melting and boiling point are also covered in this section. At room temperature, this metal is a Silver Liquid. It starts melting at -38.87 °C. All these Mercury metal properties together define what is Mercury?

Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Table
Group →

Period ↓

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

H

2

3

La-Lu
Ac-Lr

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

B

14

C
Si
Ge

15

N
P
As
Sb

16

O
S
Se
Te

17

F
Cl
Br
I
At

18

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Og